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UPDATED 4-16-10

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800 evacuated as Iceland volcano erupts.
by the CNN Wire Staff
April 14, 2010

iceland volcano 4-14-10

(CNN) --  Icelandic authorities evacuated about 800 people early Wednesday when a volcano erupted beneath the Eyjafjallajokull glacier, an emergency spokesman said.

The first evacuations began at 2 a.m. (10 p.m. ET Tuesday), accordinig to Rognvaldur Olafsson, chief inspector at Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management.  He said everyone in the area was safe.

"We have located the fissure that is erupting under the glacier," Olafsson told CNN.  He said scientists are currently doing aerial reconaissance of the area and that officials would know more when they return.

So far, he said, the eruption has created a large hole in the glacier. Lava is not a big concern, but flodding is.·        

·         Iceland   "The volcano is under the glacier and it's melting parts of the glacier."  Ofalsson said. "The rivers will rise and potentially make some damage."

Video of eruption:

CNN: producer note:  Nick Mutton of Gloucester, England, happened to be in Iceland for 10 days last week and he made it out to the active volcano on the Eyjafjallajokull glacier. He shot this HD video from 70 feet away on April 7. "We felt the warmth. We drove up there in a large 4x4 with modified tires," he said.
zdan, CNN iReport producer

Rivers closest to the glacier have already started rising, he added.

 The glacier is the sixth-biggest in Iceland, just tothe west of the bigger glacier  Myrdalsjokul.  It is about 100 miles (160 km) east of the capital, Reykjavik.

A map from the Icelandic Meteorological Office showed seismic activity of between 1 and 2 magnitude in the area around the glacier Wednesday morning.

Flights all over northern Europe were cancelled because of the danger of the engines ingesting the ash.

Next Volcano to Erupt - Latest Odds

16 Apr 2010


Iceland's glacier-covered Eyjafjallajokull volcano made headlines on Wednesday when it disrupted flights all over Europe and Scandinavia, following its first major eruption since 1821. Floods poured down the mountain side, water which had been melted by the red hot explosive eruptions bursting through the glacier which was no less than 200m thick. The water swept down the mountain in torrents, washing away all in its path and invading homes in the area. A huge mushroom cloud rose up to 20,000ft [6,100 metres] above the volcano, dwarfing the surrounding landscape.

The wind at the time was blowing east, and so carried the immense plume of ash away from Reyjkavik, Iceland’s capital. Instead the ash fell across farmland, covering everything in a thick layer and blotting out the sun, immersing the countryside into a continuous night. A farmer living in the area described the smell of sulphur that accompanied the blanket of ash. Over the next 24 hours, the plume rose, doubling in size over and over and spreading as far as the north coast of Scotland. It stretched to cover an area close to the size of Western Europe.

Following this unexpected eruption, the world has been reminded of all those dormant (or perhaps not so dormant) volcanoes which litter the planet. There are hundreds, some miniscule and others dangerous to such an extent that we call them super volcanoes and speculate the end of life as we know it should they erupt, such as the volcano beneath Yellowstone Park in the US.

To qualify as an “eruption”, the event must have a VEI, or volcanic explosivity index, of 3 or greater. The  odds exclude Mayon Volcano. Leading with odds of 3/1 is Mount Unzen in Japan, which was most recently active from 1990 to 1995. The Yellowstone super volcano is in there with wide odds of 33/1, as well as legendary volcano Mt. Vesuvius which famously erupted and destroyed the city of Pompeii in AD 79 at 28/1.


SARYCHEV PEAK VOLCANO: Perfect timing. On June 12th, just as Russia's Sarychev Peak volcano was erupting for the first time in 20 years, the International Space Station flew directly overhead. Astronauts had their camera ready and snapped one of the most dramatic Earth-science photos ever taken from space:

Researchers are studying this rare photo to learn about the early stages of powerful volcanic eruptions. A few phenomena stand out:

(1) The volcano erupted with such force, the plume actually punched through the atmosphere. Note how clouds around the volcano have parted in a circular ring--that is a result of a shock wave produced by the upward blast. (2) The plume is a mixture of brown ash and white steam. A "dirty thunderstorm" complete with lightning could be in progress within the roiling cloud. (3) The smooth white bubble on top of the plume is probably a mass of water condensing from air shoved upward by the rising ash column. If so, it is akin to the iridescent pileus clouds sometimes featured on

If you're not amazed yet, try this: Put on a pair of red-blue stereo glasses and behold the eruption in 3D. The anaglyph was created by graphic artist Patrick Vantuyne of Belgium. No stereo glasses? A cross-eyed version is also available.



MT. REDOUBT ERUPTS: After months of teasing seismic activity, Alaska's Mt. Redoubt finally erupted on March 23rd. The blast hurled clouds of ash into the lower stratosphere at least 18 km high. The last time an Alaskan volcano blew its top (Kasatochi in August 2008), stratospheric aerosols caused fantastic sunsets around the northern hemisphere--a phenomenon that could recur in the days and weeks ahead. Mt. Redoubt isn't finished. "A large explosion may occur again at anytime," says the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Stay tuned for updates.




Japan volcano eruption filmed

 Tue Mar 10 2009
Keywords: sakurajima volcano
One of Japan's most active volcanoes has erupted, spewing out lava and debris as far as 2kms away.

The Sakurajima volcano, near the southern city of Kagoshima, was expected to become active over the weekend.

The Meteorological Agency had raised its warning level earlier this month after signs of increased seismic activity.

It kept its warning level at three out of five, which warns people not to approach the volcano.

With this prognosis, the Japanese Transport Ministry set up a fixed-position camera and captured the moment the volcano erupted, setting off a series of smaller explosions.

The volcano had been dormant until 1955, but since then thousands of minor explosions a year have been recorded.

© Independent Television News Limited 2009. All rights reserved.

Volcano in Southern Japan Erupts

posted: 11 HOURS 12 MINUTES AGO

(March 10) - A volcano in southern Japan erupted Tuesday, sending cinders more than a mile from the crater, The Straits Times reports.
Mount Sakurajima, which is located southwest of Tokyo, belched out lava at least seven times after it initially blew.
"It's possible that the volcano will step up activity, and we have issued a warning to residents living nearby," a weather official said.

The 1,117-metre Mount Sakurajima near Kagoshima city belched lava seven times from 5.22am (4.22am, Singapore time on Tuesday) and ejected cinders that were found nearly two kilometres from the crater, an agency official said.

'It's possible that the volcano will step up activity, and we have issued a warning to residents living nearby,' he told AFP.

The volcano, about 950km southwest of Tokyo, continued to spout fumes, although they were down from an earlier high of 1,200m.

The volcano last erupted in February, and the agency earlier this month boosted the alert level by a notch. -- AFP





Chaiten volcano erupts again in southern Chile

SANTIAGO, Chile (AP) — Officials say scores of people who had returned to a Chilean town destroyed by a volcanic eruption are being evacuated again as the volcano roars back to life.

The presidential delegate for the region says an explosion has rocked the dome of the Chaiten volcano and sent volcanic material down the mountain's slope, threatening to block a river and cause flooding.

Paula Narvaez said Thursday that as many as 150 people will be removed from the town at the foot of the 960-meter (2,700-foot) volcano.

Some residents of the town have resisted government efforts to move them to a new settlement following a devastating eruption last year.


Written by Patagonia Times Staff   

Thursday, 19 February, 2009

Southern Chile’s Chaitén volcano once again made its powerful presence known Thursday, belching a massive column of ash into the air and provoking localized seismic activity, according to Chilean media reports.

Witnesses say the volcano began erupting at roughly 11:30 a.m. Ash is currently falling on the nearby city of Chaitén (Region X), whose approximately 200 remaining residents are being evacuated.

Authorities are planning to fly over the volcano to better determine the magnitude of the eruption. The Chilean Web site is reporting that the volcano’s dome, which has built up gradually since Chaitén first erupted last May, partially collapsed.

Chaitén first came to Chile’s and the world’s attention on May 1, 2008 when it erupted for the first time in recorded history. The volcano spewed a massive billow of ash that buried the town. At one point the plume of ash reached as far east as Buenos Aires, Argentina (
PT, May 2, 2008 ) . What wasn’t ruined by ash was later destroyed by devastating floods.

The Chilean government recently decided it will not rebuild the town on its current location, saying the volcano’s continued activity makes the area simply too dangerous for settlement. Authorities are now leaning toward relocating residents to Santa Barbara Sur.

By Patagonia Times Staff

Chile's Chaiten Volcano, which erupted spectacularly last year, spewed a vast cloud of ash on Thursday in what appeared to be a partial collapse of its cone.

Television footage showed a could of ash billowing into the sky over the town of Chaiten, which lies about six miles (10 km) from the crater.

Authorities evacuated about 100 people from the area. Most of the town's 4,500 residents were evacuated last year after the volcano, dormant for thousands of years, erupted. The government is planning to relocate the town elsewhere.

"The volcano appears to have resumed activity. ... There is a cloud of ash," Paula Narvaez, special envoy to Chaiten by President Michelle Bachelet, told local television.

"This is all very preliminary, but we think this could be due to partial collapse of the cone, which was one of the dangers."

A cloud of debris soared as high as 20 miles (32 km) into the air when the volcano erupted in May and was kept aloft by the pressure of constant eruptions for weeks, covering towns in neighboring Argentina with volcanic ash.




Date: Monday, 2 February 2009, 1:17 a.m.

Volcanoes Erupt in Japan and Russia, Spreading Ash

Two volcanoes in Japan and another in eastern Russia erupted overnight, spreading ash as far as the Philippines and Vietnam, the Japan Meteorological Agency said on its Web site.

Seven minor eruptions occurred at Mount Sakurajima on Japan’s southern island of Kyushu, throwing rocks up to 2 kilometers, the agency said. Eruptions at Mount Asama in central Japan and Karymsky Volcano on the Russian peninsula of Kamchatka were also reported. There were no reports of damage or injuries.

“I woke up after midnight to the sound and shake of the eruption,” Daisuke Tanaka, 24, a convenience-store attendant, who lives about 20 kilometers away from Asama, said by telephone today. “The sound was as if an airplane was taking off nearby and it continued for 30 minutes.”

The eruptions occurred in a region where four tectonic plates, the Eurasian, Philippine, North American and Pacific, meet, causing seismic activity.

Japan has 108 active volcanoes representing about 10 percent of the world’s total. Forty-three people died in 1991 after Mount Unzen erupted on the southern island of Kyushu, while 15,000 people were evacuated after Mount Usu erupted on the northern island of Hokkaido in 2000.


Ash falls on Tokyo as volcanoes erupt

TOKYO: Two volcanoes erupted near major cities in Japan on Monday, with one spewing white smoke and ash into the heart of Tokyo, the weather agency said.

Seven minor eruptions occurred at Mount Sakurajima on Japan’s southern island of Kyushu, throwing rocks up to 2 kilometers, the agency said. Eruptions at Mount Asama in central Japan and Karymsky Volcano on the Russian peninsula of Kamchatka were also reported. There were no reports of damage or injuries.

“I woke up after midnight to the sound and shake of the eruption,” Daisuke Tanaka, 24, a convenience-store attendant, who lives about 20 kilometers away from Asama, said by telephone today. “The sound was as if an airplane was taking off nearby and it continued for 30 minutes.”

The eruptions occurred in a region where four tectonic plates, the Eurasian, Philippine, North American and Pacific, meet, causing seismic activity.

Japan has 108 active volcanoes representing about 10 percent of the world’s total. Forty-three people died in 1991 after Mount Unzen erupted on the southern island of Kyushu, while 15,000 people were evacuated after Mount Usu erupted on the northern island of Hokkaido in 2000.

The 2,568 meter Asama, which last had a minor eruption in August last year, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. A major eruption in 1783 killed more than 1,000 people.

The meteorological agency raised its alert levels for both Asama and Sakurajima, prohibiting people from entering the area around the volcano.

To contact the reporters on this story: Takahiko Hyuga in Tokyo at; Stuart Biggs in Tokyo at

Last Updated: February 1, 2009 23:33 EST

Authorities of Kamchatka Territory and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky City must get ready for a big swell of eruption of the Koryak Volcano located at the 30 km distance from the city and its airport, which is the major air gateway of Kamchatka.
      Alexei Ozerov, the leading scientist of the Volcanology and Seismology Institute of Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science has recently reported about this to RIA Novosti.
      “As compared to the eruption of 1956, the only one in the history of modern observations, the current eruption started in a more impetuous and powerful way” – the scientist pointed out. According to him, this is indicative of the possibility of a considerable intensification of the volcano activity.

      “Ash emissions and trails already now are quite dangerous for aviation, the hazard growing with the intensification of the eruption” – warned he.
      The Koryak Volcano has been in the state of explosive eruption (i.e. eruption with ash emissions) of average force since Thursday.
 In modern history only one eruption, starting in 1956 was observed. Back then a crack broke in the north-west slope of the volcano, with gases and ashes ejected. The eruption was weak and lasted till March 1957.



Aleutian volcano spews ash 50,000 feet into the air

The Associated Press

A volcano erupted Saturday with little warning on a remote Aleutian island, sending residents of a nearby ranch fleeing from falling ash and volcanic rock.

The Okmok Caldera erupted at 11:43 a.m., just hours after seismologists at the Alaska Volcano Center began detecting a series of small tremors.

The explosion flung an ash cloud at least 50,000 feet high, said geophysicist Steve McNutt.

Okmok is 60 miles west of the busy fishing port of Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island. Ash was reported falling in the region, McNutt said.

Ten people, including three children, were at Fort Glenn, a private cattle ranch six miles south of the volcano on Umnak Island, located in the western Aleutians.

They were later picked up by a vessel responding to a Coast Guard request for emergency assistance.

The ranch residents had managed to call authorities on a satellite phone before losing their connection, according to the Coast Guard. After the nine were picked up, the Coast Guard canceled plans to send a cutter to the island, about 860 miles southwest of Anchorage.

Coast Guard Petty Officer Lee Goldsmith said those at Fort Glenn reported rock and ash falling around them. As a result, the Coast Guard could not send aircraft, he said. 

The Fort Glenn residents initially had planned to use a small private helicopter to fly one passenger at a time to nearby Unalaska Island, which is separated from Fort Glenn by a five-mile channel.

Two planned flights from Unalaska were canceled because of the eruption, said Jerry Lucas, a spokesman for PenAir, the primary airline serving the area.

The 3,500-foot volcano last erupted in 1997, according to McNutt. The volcano has shown signs of increased activity during the last few months, he said.

Previous eruptions have typically produced lava flows, but officials at the volcano center could not immediately determine if that had occurred in Saturday's explosion, McNutt said.

Daily News reporter Kyle Hopkins contributed to this story.


Residents fret in shadow of Chile's Llaima volcano

The Laima volcano is part of a chain of around 2,000 in the country [EPA]


Sun Jul 13, 2008 8:53am ED
By Simon Gardner

MELIPEUCO, Chile, July 13 (Reuters) - Living in the shadow of Chile's sporadically erupting, snow-capped Llaima volcano, one of South America's most active, local residents like Eduardo Mendoza are paying a heavy price.

Evacuated from the ski station where he works after the government imposed a red alert when Llaima began spewing lava earlier this month, Mendoza and dozens like him have lost their livelihoods and are having trouble feeding their families.

This is the second ski season in a row interrupted by the volcano, which towers near Chile's lake region about 435 miles (700 km) south of the capital Santiago.

"People can't go to work because of the danger," he said, a cloud engulfing the majestic volcano behind him, black scars on its white slopes betraying where lava has flowed and cooled.

"Our source of work has been stopped and we depend on it to sustain our families. We can't go on like this," he added, showing a video clip on his mobile phone of the volcano spewing a jet of hot pyroclastic rock 1,300 feet (400 metres) into the air before dawn on Thursday.

That flurry of activity in turn came a week after lava spewed down one of its sides.

Aside from hot rock and gas, or lava flows, that have emanated from the crater, another major worry is that snow on the volcano's sides could melt and that a nearby river could overflow and flood nearby communities.

The volcano erupted violently on New Year's Day, forcing the temporary evacuation of some tourists and residents from the surrounding Conguillio National Park. It belched ash and lava in February. Much of the park is off limits again.

The government this month ordered a 9-mile (15 km) "red zone" around the 10,253-foot (3,124 metre)-high volcano, and has now evacuated around 60 people from nearby.


Experts say there is no knowing how the volcano, the second to erupt in Chile in as many months, will continue to behave.

"The activity is going up and down very fast," said Hugo Moreno, a geologist and volcano expert with state mining and geology service Sernageomin, who is based in the town of Melipeuco, on the fringe of the exclusion zone.

"It is oscillating, so it is very difficult to make a medium-term forecast," he added. "It will most likely continue to oscillate, until it stabilizes at some point."

Llaima's current eruptive cycle began in May last year. Cycles have lasted anything from one minute to three years or more, Moreno said.

In the sleepy town of Cherquenco, 11 miles (18 km) from the base of the volcano, Agriculture Minister Marigen Hornkohl sought to reassure worried farmers.

They complain are only allowed into the exclusion area to tend to their animals two hours a day, and are worried they'll die, be stolen, or be eaten by puma.

"We have to take this one minute at a time," Hornkohl told residents and evacuees assembled in the rear of the local fire station. "Now, when we want to be able to go home, the worst thing we can do is to take the wrong decisions," she said.

LLaima's renewed activity comes after Chaiten volcano, 760 miles (1,220 km) south of Santiago in Chilean Patagonia, erupted on May 2 for the first time in thousands of years, spewing ash, gas and molten rock.

Ash from Chaiten, which initially soared 20 miles (30 km) into the stratosphere, swelled rivers in the area and caused floods that damaged dozens of wooden houses, sweeping some off their foundations.

Chile's chain of some 2,000 volcanoes is the world's second-largest after Indonesia's. Around 50 to 60 are recorded to have erupted, while 500 are deemed potentially active. (Editing by Anthony Boadle) (, Tel 569 9818 8538, Reuters messaging


A plume of ashes and smoke rises from the Chaiten volcano some 1,200 km south from Santiago, Chile on May 2, 2008. Up to now, 1,200 people were evacuated from the area. The eruption caused a red alert in neighbouring regions of Chile and Argentina. (AFP,Christian Brown)

This isn't snow!

Eruption Leaves Chilean Town Deserted

Posted: 2008-05-03 19:39:46
Filed Under: World News
SANTIAGO, Chile (May 3, 2008) - The Chaiten volcano spewed light ash on a nearly deserted village Saturday, two days after its first eruption in thousands of years.

No more than 45 of Chaiten's 4,500 residents remained in what looked like a ghost town, its streets, houses, cars and trees draped with a thick layer of light-colored ash, Interior Minister Edmundo Perez said.

Those who decided to stay after Thursday's eruption could be seen wearing face masks outdoors in Chaiten, 750 miles south of the capital, Santiago. Street lights were illuminated under darkened skies.

Just six miles away, the volcano belched fat smoke plumes that at times rose as high as 12 miles into the air, the government's Emergency Bureau said.

Winds carried the ash to other towns in the region and across the Andes mountains to Argentina, where two airlines suspended flights due to poor visibility.

The Chaiten volcano has "probably been dormant for about 9,000 or 10,000 years but that's not unusual," said Charles Stern, a professor of volcanology at the University of Colorado who specializes in Andes volcanoes.
Authorities evacuated most of Chaiten's residents to schools and churches in the nearby cities of Puerto Montt and Castro.

"It is very difficult to predict when the people will be able to return," Perez said. "This situation can last for days, or weeks - or longer."

Some residents were pessimistic.

"This could be the end of our town," community leader Leonardo Maureira told Radio Cooperativa of Santiago. "We have worked an entire life here and now all we could do was to put a few things in a bag and depart, leaving everything behind."

Others decided to stay.

"We have to protect our investment," said Nelson Alderete, a small shopkeeper, as he watched his wife and small daughter board a boat to Puerto Montt. "But if things get really ugly, I will leave."

Chaiten Mayor Jose Fritis said the town will not die.

"This has been a historic catastrophe for us, but we will rebuild from the ashes," he said.
Copyright 2008 The Associated Press.


Vog forces closure of Volcano National Park

By Kevin Dayton
Advertiser Staff Writer

HILO, Hawai'i — Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park closed this morning after park officials feared the combined emissions from Pu'u O'o and Halema'uma'u crater would be significant hazards as the wind shifts to the west at about noon today, said Big Island Mayor Harry Kim.

That evacuation included the Volcano House hotel within the park, with guests at the hotel moved to the Naniloa Volcanoes Resort in Hilo, Kim said. He said staffing at the park would be limited to required personnel only.

Civil defense officials at 9 p.m. last night announced voluntary evacuations for five communities northeast of Halema'uma'u crater as sulfur dioxide fumes in the area are expected to intensify today.

The voluntary evacuation advisory covered the Mauna Loa Estates, Ohia Estates and Volcano Golf Course subdivisions as well as the Volcano Village and Keauhou Ranch areas.

As of this morning, no one had showed up at the emergency shelters set up in Hilo. Kim said people living in older and established communities often prefer to stay with friends or family during evacuations.

State health officials warned that computer models of the weather patterns and volcanic emissions suggest that air quality in the Volcano Village area could reach the highest "purple" level today under the color coded chart used to warn the public of the short-term air quality risks.

When conditions for an area are designated as purple, all people are advised to avoid outdoor activity, and people with respiratory problem are advised to leave the area.

Hilo and many Puna residents awoke this morning to find their homes enveloped in a thick layer of vog, with particularly high spikes in sulfur dioxide recorded in the Fern Forest subdivision and at the Volcano Village Fire Station.

Hilo and Lower Puna residents blanketed with vog this morning saw some relief as winds pushed some of the emissions away from those areas. As the winds are projected to shift to the west, that is likely to continue to clear the air on the Windward side of the island.

Lt. Col. Trey Johnson, commander of the 93rd Civil Support Team of the Hawai'i National Guard, said the hazard model being used to project the potential threat suggests the worst effects will shift west of the crater this afternoon as the wind shifts.

That breeze is expected to push a relatively narrow plume of sulfur dioxide at levels more than double the federal ambient air quality standards out to about 30 miles west of Halema'uma'u crater.

Although that could have a dramatic effect on the communities around the volcano, Kim said, it is not expected to have a huge impact on the more heavily populated North Kona communities, Kim said.

"Fortunately, there's nothing between there and Kona as far as populated areas," said Big Island Mayor Harry Kim. "We have a great distance factor of no people."

The model suggests the sulfur dioxide will dissipate somewhat before it reaches that heavily populated Kailua, Kona area, Johnson said.

Inside Volcanoes Park, officials evacuated campers from campgrounds, the Kilauea Military Camp and the Volcano House hotel. The Volcano House has 42 guest rooms.

There are 10 cabins, which have beds and showers, that were also evacuated at Namakani Paio campground, said park spokesman Michael Larson. The park campgrounds are free and open to the public on a first come-first-served basis.

"The levels of sulfur dioxide are higher then they've ever been here," Larson said. "They're way above the red level, extremely unhealthy.

"The park will reopen when the tradewinds come back," he said.

Visibility is poor on the Chain of Craters Road, he said. All 180 park service employees, except for emergency responders, also have been evacuated.

Reach Kevin Dayton at


This video frame released by the Colombian Institute of Geology and Mining, INGEOMINAS, shows the Galeras volcano erupting in Pasto, southern Colombia, Thursday, Jan. 17, 2008. The volcano spread ashes for kilometers prompting an evacuation order for thousands, in the most serious eruption of the Galeras since its reactivation in 1989.


8,000 Flee Colombian Volcano Eruption

Posted: 2008-01-18 11:31:32
BOGOTA, Colombia (Jan. 18) - A volcano erupted violently in southwestern Colombia Thursday, spewing ash miles into the sky and prompting the evacuation of several thousand people living nearby.
He said Thursday's eruption had produced some lava flows that did not extend far from the volcano's crater.

A 1993 eruption of the volcano, near the border with Ecuador, killed nine people, including five scientists who had descended into the crater to sample gases.

In November 2005, the volcano spewed ash that fell about 30 miles away.

2008-01-18 09:24:19


Volcano Poised for 'Great Eruption'

Posted: 2008-01-10 22:31:54
QUITO, Ecuador (Jan. 9) - Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano is poised for a major eruption, a volcanologist said Wednesday. Authorities last week evacuated 10 villages from its western slopes as a precaution.

Patricia Mothes, a U.S. expert on volcanoes, said the 16,575-foot volcano, located 80 miles southeast of Quito, "is preparing to generate, in days or weeks, a great eruption."
She said that could mean pyroclastic flows - blasts of volcanic material "that descend at high speeds and burn everything in their way."

Tungurahua, which has been active since 1999, has been freeing a high level of energy since Dec. 22, Mothes told The Associated Press by telephone.

"We have indications that there may be important volumes of magma which would be liberated in an eruption," she said.

Juan Salazar, the mayor of Penipe, one of 10 villages evacuated last week from the western slopes of Tungurahua, said 3,000 acres of crops and pasture have been damaged by ash from the volcano.

There have been no lava flows since the volcano began spitting out ash in December, he said.

Villagers return by day to tend to their crops and farm animals but stay in temporary shelters outside the danger zone at night.

Salazar said the government has decided to provide new houses for 286 families that cannot return to their homes at night. He said the families would receive the keys to the houses on Feb. 9 along with small plots for growing crops.

Tungurahua erupted in July and August of 2006, causing at least four deaths. The eruptions forced the evacuation of thousands of villagers and damaged thousands of acres of crops buried under tons of ashes and lava flows.


ANAK KRAKATUA  (Child of Krakatua)

Indonesia's Anak Krakatau -- or
"Child of Krakatau," volcano is shown erupting Thursday, sending up clouds of hot gasses, rocks and lava.

There have been no deaths associated with the eruptions that began earlier this month, but thousands of villagers have been evacuated from the area.

Anak Krakatau sends up an ash cloud on Saturday.


Anak Krakatau rose from the sea decades ago. Here is a late 1920s view of a mostly underwater volcanic eruption that led to its birth. Source: AP

Indonesian Volcano Blasts Back to Life

Posted: 2007-11-11 10:10:40
ANAK KRAKATAU, Indonesia (Nov. 11, 2007) - Indonesia's Anak Krakatau volcano lets out a massive roar as it blasts a gigantic cloud of smoke and flaming red rocks hundreds of meters into the night sky.

A few hours later, a river of lava and stones glowing like embers glide down the slopes of Mount Anak Krakatau as the muted light of the rising sun tries to break through thick clouds settled above the mountain.

The volcano, whose name means "Child of Krakatau," formed in the Sunda Strait close to Java island after Mount Krakatau's legendary eruption in 1883. It rumbled to life about two weeks ago and since then has been dazzling scientists and visitors with its amazing pyrotechnics.

Scientists monitoring the volcano say Anak Krakatau is not especially dangerous and will continue to rumble for some time, but warn people to stay out of a 1.9 miles zone around the mountain.

"We are a little worried sometimes when we heard the big boom and we see rocks that fall from, I don't know, half kilometer from the hole," Chad Bouchard, one of a group of eight tourists who spent the night in a boat in the ocean to watch the volcano.

"Sometimes we see the splash inside the ocean. That's a little scary but no, I think it might be stupid but I feel safe."

Devastating Disaster

Anak Krakatau, which lies 26 miles from the nearest observation post in Serang on the westernmost edge of Java, gradually formed after the volcanic island of Krakatau blew up in a massive eruption in 1883, triggering tsunamis and killing more than 36,000 people.

Ashes from that eruption, one of the most devastating natural disasters in recorded history, were carried by upper level winds as far away as New York City.

Krakatau, one of dozens of volcanoes in the sprawling Indonesian archipelago, last erupted in 1988, but its eruptions have never approached the ferocity of its parent.

Child of Krakatau is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the Pacific "Ring of Fire," but authorities have not yet raised the alert level to the highest which would require the evacuation of people around the volcano.

A vulcanologist monitoring Anak Krakatau said the volcano was likely to rumble and roar for some time.

"It is still at the third level of alert. It is safe and there aren't any problems. There were approximately one hundred explosions yesterday," Saut Simatupang, head of volcano observation in Bandung, told Reuters.

"If the energy is the same as this, it is more likely it will stay at this level for quite some time as the tremors are frequent. Today only, there have been one hundred."

Visitors who had their morning coffee in a boat in the shadow of the volcano in the Sunda Strait's choppy waters about a one-and-a-half-hour ride from the mainland said they felt safe.

"It's spectacular, it's just amazing to be here," said Patricia Anderton, a tourist from New Haven in the United states.

"I feel incredibly lucky to be able to see it."

Additional reporting by Ade Mardiyati in Jakarta, Writing by Sugita Kaytal

note: there are 70 volcanos on this series of islands.


Copyright 2007 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved.

Kelud volcanic lake is one of the most active and most dangerous stratovolcano in Indonesia. Many lives were claimed by Kelud eruptions in the past six centuries mostly due to pyroclastic flows, surges and especially lahars, as in 1919 eruption (5160 victims). Before the last eruption (1990) a system of drainage was done to maintain the volume of the lake at low level (2,000,000 m3) and to control the lahars. Hydro-acoustic monitoring is the first system of surveillance that has been performed at the crater lake and has revealed intense gas bubbling a year before seismic precursor records of the 1990 eruption.

Oct 19, 2007 MOUNT KELUD, Indonesia - Armed police forced tens of thousands of reluctant residents to leave the slopes of one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanos Friday, warning an eruption was imminent. The United Nations mobilized hundreds of aid workers and medical supplies to the area.

S4entists raised the alert at Mount Kelud to the highest level earlier this week, pointing to rising temperatures in the lake of its crater and deep underground tremors. Authorities ordered 116,000 people living along the fertile slopes to evacuate, but many have refused, saying they need to tend to their crops and animals.

"If we didn't force them — in this case with a showing of firearms — the villagers would not budge," said local police chief Col. Tjuk Basuki, adding that residents have been repeatedly warned about the dangers of the volcano. "We had no choice but to do this for their safety."



Volcano erupts on Red Sea island A search for survivors is under way after a volcano erupted on a Yemeni island in the Red Sea, killing at least two people.

The western part of the tiny al-Tair island, used as a military base, collapsed following the eruption, the defence ministry said.

Two bodies were recovered from the sea and other soldiers are missing.

Yemeni coastguards requested the help of nearby Nato ships in the search and rescue operation.

The Canadian navy frigate HMCS Toronto was sailing towards the Suez Canal when it received the request.

The Toronto's crew told the Canadian Press news agency two bodies had been pulled out of the sea, while one soldier had been rescued.

Other reports, quoting soldiers and government officials, suggested the death toll could be higher.

About 50 Yemeni soldiers were evacuated from the island before the eruption, witnesses and officials said.

Rescuers were scouring the sea for about eight other soldiers who were feared to be missing.

'Aglow with lava'

On Sunday evening, Canadian navy spokesman Ken Allen told reporters in an e-mail that the entire island was "aglow with lava and magma as it pours down into the sea".

"The lava is spewing hundreds of feet into the air, with the volcanic ash also 1,000 feet in the air."

Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh flew to nearby al-Hudayda port on Sunday to observe the situation.

He ordered Yemen's navy to send rescue teams to the area.

The island, some 140km (80 miles) off the Yemen coast, is about 3km long and has been used as a military base since 1996.

Geologists say al-Tair, which lies on a major fault line, last saw a volcanic eruption in the late 19th Century.

Yemeni officials are linking the eruption to several small earthquakes which they say hit the island on Sunday morning.


This photo captures strombolian activity and lava flows of Klyuchevskoy
volcano on May 31, 2007. (Credit: Photo by Yu Demyanchuk)

Kamchatka, Russia-  Volcano Blows Its Top

Science Daily Klyuchevskoy (pronounced Kloo-shef-skoy), a stratovolcano located in the north central region of the Kamchatka Peninsula, is blasting ash up to 32,000 feet in the air, and has diverted air traffic headed toward the Far East. This is the largest eruption to occur in the North Pacific in a decade, and is providing students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks a unique opportunity to collaborate with scientists, as well as state and federal agencies.

Tracking the Klyuchevskoy eruption locally are a handful students and faculty from the Geophysical Institute and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (GI/AVO) who process data used to reroute air traffic around dangerous volcanic ash clouds. Information is collected by satellite, Web cam, and Puff, a three-dimensional volcanic ash computer model. Once these data are synthesized, they are then shared at large to ensure the safety of thousands of people living in, or flying through the North Pacific.

Klyuchevskoy's been erupting since January, but the largest explosions in the eruption began June 28, 2007. These explosions created a 1,360-mile-long band of ash, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk to the Aleutian Islands, clogging well-used air routes with volcanic ash that prove deas located in Kamchatka, its ash crossed the Bering Sea and reached Unimak Island in the Aleutians within one day. Volcanic ash moves quickly through the atmosphere, so it's important for scientists to have up-to-date information at their f

Twice a day, the GI/AVO am goes through a rigorous process to examine the current condition of the more than 150 active volcanoes in the North Pacific. In addition, faculty is on call 24-hours a day to respond to large events like the recent explosions from Klyuchevskoy to guarantee information is shared and public safety is addressed.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by University of Alaska Fairbanks.

NASA MODIS Image of the Day: July 7, 2007 - Dual Plume from Klyuchevskaya Volcano

Date Released: Saturday, July 7, 2007
Source: NASA MODIS Web


Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula released a plume on July 1, 2007.

The MODIS flying on NASA’s Aqua satellite took this picture the same day.

Although opaque white clouds float overhead in this image, skies are clear enough to allow an easy view of the volcanic plume. This westward-blowing plume appears to have a dual nature. The larger, more visible plume is almost white, indicating high water vapor content. Below and slightly northward of the pale plume is another, this one dark brown in color. This plume’s dark color suggests that it consists primarily of volcanic ash. The steam plume casts its shadow onto the ash plume below. Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) is the most active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. With an altitude of 4,835 meters (15,863 feet), it is also the peninsula’s highest volcano. As part of the Pacific “Ring of Fire,” Kamchatka experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth’s crust. Since its formation some 6,000 years ago, Klyuchevskaya has seen few periods of inactivity, and the volcano is estimated to have experienced more than 100 flank eruptions in the past 3,000 years.

Ashy emissions of the Klyuchevsky Volcano in Kamchatka reach the height of 9 thousand metres; ashy clouds, a result of the volcanic emissions, have spread over 100.000 square kilometres. It is said that there is a danger to aircrafts due to the emissions and the low visibility.
      The plumes of volcanic dust spread over 200 kilometres. The local seismic stations daily register up to 100 earthquakes in the volcano area. The resident population and guests of the region are advised to limit the time of staying outdoors during ashfalls, as volcanic dust may cause poisoning and other negative consequences.



18/04/2007 - 7:52:52 PM

Thousands evacuated as volcano erupts in Columbia 

Waking from a nap that may have lasted thousands of years, the Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia erupted late yesterday and early today, provoking avalanches and floodings that swept away houses and bridges and prompted the evacuation of thousands, authorities said.

“The best news, up to now, is that we have no reports of injuries or deaths, Luz Amanda Pulido, director of the national disaster office, said after flying over the towering volcano located in south-west Colombia.

“There’s ten thousand people in the zone, of which we’ve already evacuated 3,500.” The first eruption occurred 10.37pm yesterday (3.37am Irish time today), the second at 2.57am (7.57 Irish time) today.

Experts did not rule out further eruptions.

“The seismic activity remains light but permanent, and we can’t rule out another bigger event in the next hours or days,” said Mario Ballesteros, director of the government’s Institute for Geology and Mining.

The rivers Paez and Simbola, clogged with the avalanche of rocks, continue to be swollen



Volcano landslides kill 6 in Colombia - 3 missing

By Karl Penhaul

BOGOTA, Colombia (CNN) -- A snow-capped volcano erupted and sparked landslides in southwest Colombia, killing at least six people -- four of them children, government officials and rescue workers said Sunday.

Three others are still missing.

The Nevado del Huila volcano erupted at 9:45 p.m. Thursday.

Gas and hot ash caused snow on the mountain peak to melt, sending mud, rocks and floodwater rushing down the River Paez and destroying at least 20 homes and washing out five bridges, the presidential office said in a statement.

Much of the sparsely populated region is a reservation for Nasa indigenous communities. All six killed were native Indians, according to the government. The youngest victim was 1 year old.

The worst-hit area was around the town of Belacazar, in southwest Cauca province.

By mid-afternoon Sunday, weather conditions were improving, but rescue workers said heavy rain since Thursday's eruption hampered relief work.

"Conditions are very good right now, but have been very changeable at night and first thing in the morning. That's meant rivers have flooded and made work very difficult," Col. Mervin Varon, director of disaster prevention for Colombian Civil Defense, told CNN.

Varon was speaking from the southwest town of La Plata, where a military air bridge has been set up to fly emergency supplies to the disaster zone.

Almost 300 people have been evacuated from homes around the volcano and along the route of the River Paez, government officials said. Relief aid, including water, cooking implements and baby diapers, is being distributed to 2,500 people.

The disaster struck as thousands of Colombian Indians, many from the eruption zone, marched into the capital to protest for land rights and a halt to free-market economic policies they say are condemning them to poverty..


18/04/2007 - 7:52:52 PM


Nevado del Huila volcano eruption forces evacuation of towns


The municipalities of Belalcazar, La Plata, Nataga and Paicol were the hardest hit. Various roads, houses and bridges were washed away by river flooding, according to local emergency help units.
Nevado del Huila volcano. Photo EFE
Nevado del Huila volcano. Photo EFE

Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted twice, late Tuesday night and early Wednesday morning, prompting evacuations and causing significant damage but no injuries, said authorities.

"The eruptions caused the Paez river to rise, but an emergency plan took effect immediately and those zones affected were evacuated," said Luz Amanda Pulido, director of the office of prevention and attention to disasters, in comments to journalists before traveling to the site of eruption in southwest Colombia.

The volcano's eruptions dislodged tons of rocks and ice that fell in to the river Paez.

The municipalities of Belalcazar, La Plata, Nataga and Paicol were the hardest hit. Various roads, houses and bridges were washed away by river flooding, according to local emergency help units.

The 5,634 meter volcano is located 270 kilometers southwest of Bogota.

Waking from a nap that may have lasted thousands of years, the Nevado del Huila volcano in Colombia erupted late yesterday and early today, provoking avalanches and floodings that swept away houses and bridges and prompted the evacuation of thousands, authorities said.

“The best news, up to now, is that we have no reports of injuries or deaths, Luz Amanda Pulido, director of the national disaster office, said after flying over the towering volcano located in south-west Colombia.

“There’s ten thousand people in the zone, of which we’ve already evacuated 3,500.” The first eruption occurred 10.37pm yesterday (3.37am Irish time today), the second at 2.57am (7.57 Irish time) today.  


04/10/2007, 08:47:40


Volcano experts say the shattering of one of the two craters of a giant volcano on Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean is the eruption of the century.

The 800-metre-wide plateau inside the crater dropped 300 metres during the eruption, and islanders remain on high alert.

Scientists have made their first expedition to the site of the eruption, which took place more than a week ago, and say the scene there is apocalyptic.

They say the main feeling, standing near the new 300-metre abyss, is fear.

The volcano was still erupting on Monday, but the scientists say its most dramatic outburst is now over.

Spectacular volcano eruption on La Reunion


Raging lava has spewed out of one of the world's most active volcanos on the French island of La Reunion.

The red hot lava cut roads in half, damaged homes and created huge clouds of steam as it flowed into the Indian Ocean.

But the islanders are used to the spectacle. It is the third eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise or 'Mountain of the Furnace' this year alone.

About 50 teenagers were taken to hospital from three schools in Saint Joseph with respiratory problems caused by the volcano's sulpher fumes, according to, the online newspaper of La Reunion.

Researchers on the island are concerned the recent activity may be creating more cracks lower down the volcano, which will allow the molten lava to spread further.

The volcano is about 530,000 years old and has erupted an estimated 170 times since the mid 17th century.

La Reunion is a small island wedged between Madagascar and Mauritius. It is one of twenty-six regions of France and President Jacques Chirac is the head of state.

The 777,000 island inhabitants once prospered from the cultivation of sugar cane, but tourism and financial aid from Paris now underpin its economy.


    Ecuador's Reventador Volcano Spews Ash

Mar 30 11:52 PM US/Eastern

QUITO, Ecuador (AP) - A volcano in Ecuador's Andes erupted Friday, shooting plume of ash nearly two miles into the sky but causing no injuries or damage, authorities said.
Liliana Troncoso of Ecuador's Geophysics Institute told The Associated Press that Reventador volcano had been showing increasing signs of activity since January, but that this eruption does not pose a threat to any nearby villages.
The volcano erupted in 2002, spreading ash over the capital, Quito, about 65 miles to the east.
Earlier this month, authorities evacuated about 100 families from the slopes of the Tungurahua volcano in central Ecuador after it showered villages with flaming rocks and ash.

Etna awakes with storm of fire and lava

By Malcolm Moore, Rome Correspondent

Mount Etna, the largest active volcano in Europe, threw fire and rocks more than 800ft into the air yesterday.

Etna, which is almost 11,000ft high, sits 18 miles from Catania on Sicily's east coast. Several villages lie on its lower slopes, but the Italian government said yesterday that the lava was flowing away from them, and that there was no immediate danger.

The explosions are coming from two holes near to the top of the volcano, creating a lava field more than a mile long which is flowing at a rate faster than 90 cubic feet a minute. Even though the eruption has continued for three days, scientists said it had lost little of its force.

Etna is in an almost constant state of activity, but is not considered particularly dangerous and its slopes are home to farms and vineyards that make use of the rich volcanic soil. The last major eruption was in 2002.

  Comoros volcano tremors grow stronger
January 14 2007 at 12:46PM
Moroni - Earth tremors from Comoros' volcano Mount Karthala grew stronger and more frequent, residents said on Sunday, forcing thousands of nervous families to sleep outside overnight for fear their homes might collapse.

The Indian Ocean archipelago's largest island, Grand Comore, was put on red alert after Mount Karthala - one of the world's largest active volcanos - began to glow red and emit suffocating fumes late on Friday.

The 2 361-metre Mount Karthala dominates Grand Comore, but its eruptions, which happen on average every 11 years, have rarely caused a major disaster.

But while lava levels inside the crater have subsided, earth tremors have become more frequent.

Hamidou Soule, a geologist who leads the Karthala surveillance centre, said tremors were lasting up to five seconds and had reached five on the Richter scale.

"The lava and the gases remain trapped and are looking to crack through the mountain. It seems the main chimney is blocked," he said. "The frequency of the tremors shows that a (lava) flow could happen in any part of the island."

Residents said people were prepared to evacuate.

"The tremors get stronger and stronger every 15 minutes," said Ibrahim Youssouf, a photographer from Mitsoudje village on the volcano's southwestern slope. "A good number of people have packed their bags, ready to flee in case of eruption."

Another resident from a village on the volcano's western slope said high temperatures had made the air dry.

"It feels like everything will explode," he said.

In the capital Moroni, thousands slept outside overnight and national radio broadcast appeals for calm and readings from the Koran across the mainly Muslim island.

"When I felt the tremor, I woke my wife and we stayed in the garden," said resident Abderemane Koudre. "We thought the house was going to collapse. It was frightening."

In 1903, 17 died from noxious fumes that seeped from cracks, and the last big eruption was in April 2005 when thousands fled in fear of poisonous gas and lava.


  MONSERATT VOLCANO shoots ash 5 miles *****

ORIGINAL CAPTION: Superheated ash and lava is visible inside the cone of the Soufriere Hills volcano, which has been active lately, as seen from Olveston, Montserrat, on Jan. 4, 2007. On Jan. 8, 2007 a cloud of ash and gas reportedly shot up from the volcano more than 5 miles (8 kilometers) into the sky, and authorities warn that more significant activity is possible in the coming days. (Wayne Fenton/ AP)

The pressure of the earth is being relieved....(about all the gas leaks)

Montserrat volcano shoots ash 5 miles up By BENNETTE ROACH, Associated Press Writer
2 hours, 48 minutes ago

OLVESTON, Montserrat - The volcano that destroyed Montserrat's capital in 1997 shot a cloud of ash more than five miles into the sky on Monday, and one of the island's chief scientists said the blast was "a warning call."

The government has advised about 50 families on the northwestern side of the volcano's base that their homes were at risk from flows of blistering gas and debris if the dome collapses. Gov. Deborah Barnes Jones said she would sign an evacuation order Monday making it illegal for people to remain in the area.

The blast, accompanied by increased seismic rumbling, released gases and steam from inside a lava dome that has grown rapidly over the last week, said Dr. Vicky Hards, director of the Montserrat Volcano Observatory.

"I think it was a warning call ... of what it can do," Hards said.

The explosion around sunrise also sent a flow of volcanic material cascading two miles down the northwest flank, but did not immediately threaten any of the British Caribbean island's 5,000 inhabitants, Hards said. Sirens alerted people to listen to the radio for updates.

"People in the affected area know who they are and should work urgently on packing up and arranging for alternative accommodations," Barnes Jones said in a radio address.

Only "a handful" of residents were believed to still be living in the threatened area, said Mark Twigg, head of the governor's office.

"This causes genuine hardship for people who have to leave, and this is taken lightly by nobody," he said.

The volcano's latest burst of activity began on Dec. 24. Glowing streaks of red from the pyroclastic flows have created nighttime spectacles visible across much of the island. The volcano's rising dome remained in place after Monday's explosion, raising fears of a bigger event soon.

The Soufriere Hills volcano became active in 1995, and more than half the territory's 12,000 inhabitants moved away. An eruption in 1997 buried much of the south, including the capital of Plymouth, and killed 19 people.

Since then, the mountainous, teardrop-shaped island has gone on a building binge. A new city center is planned for Little Bay, the future capital, in northwest Montserrat. The island has a new airport to replace the one that was engulfed by lava flows and a 700-seat concert hall. A new parliament, courthouse and cricket field are planned.

Associated Press writer Michael Melia contributed to this story from San Juan, Puerto Rico.

On the Net:

Montserrat Volcano Observatory: [
link to]



PREPARE FOR IMMEDIATE EVACUATION authorities on Sunday warned residents living near Mount Mayon, as lava flowed past the volcano's six-kilometer permanent danger zone. No signs of an immediate eruption were reported as of posting time though residents affected by ash fall and pyroclastic materials from the volcano were told they should evacuate. The Office of Civil Defense in Bicol, meanwhile, is closely monitoring the condition of residents in Santo Domingo town affected by ash fall.


Ashes hit Daraga and Legazpi residents

LEGAZPI CITY - Barely two weeks after Mount Mayon started emitting lava, residents of Daraga town and Legazpi City experienced ash falls following tropical depression Henry.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) said the advancing lava front has reached the 320-meter elevation or 5.4 kilometers from the crater, which is just six meters away from six-kilometer radius Permanent Danger Zone.

PHIVOLCS resident volcanologist Ed Laguerta said that traces of ash deposits from lava flowing down the Mabini channel of the volcano formed small ash column that drifted to several areas south of the volcano, specifically the town of Daraga.

Red hot molten rocks continued cascading down the Bonga gully while smaller flows and incandescent blocks of lava were observed entering adjacent gullies towards the general directions of Miisi village in Daraga town and Mabinit, Bonga, Matanag and Buyoan villages in this city.

Due to this, the city disaster council and in Daraga issued an advisory for some 8,000 residents of affected villages to be on alert for sudden pyroclastic flows and explosions.

Gas emission from the volcano measured at 6,099 tons on Friday. Since July 26, scientists have noted the sudden increase and decrease of sulfur dioxide, indicating the strong possibility of volcanic eruption.

The seismic network recorded about 394 tremor episodes and four volcanic quakes during the past 24 hours signifying magma activity in the volcano.

Residents in these areas are alerted against possible flashfloods and landslides.

Meanwhile, The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) warned the public to be on guard, specifically the villages around the slopes of Mount Mayon as tropical depression Henry was almost stationary and is threatening the Bicol region.

Packing a maximum sustained winds of 55 kph near the center tropical depression Henry is moving west-northwest at a speed of three kilometers per hour.

Signal number 1 is hoisted over the entire Bicol region, as Henry was expected to be 350 km east-northeast of this city on Sunday morning; 240km northeast of Virac, Catanduanes, by Monday and 190 km east northeast of Virac by Tuesday morning.

About 130 passengers were stranded at Matnog port bound for the Visayas and Mindanao regions. The Philippine Coast Guard in Bicol grounded all inter-island vessels while the status of tropical depression Henry remained uncertain. Rhaydz B. Barcia

July 31, 2006, 3:12AM
Indonesian volcano spews hot gas, debris

JAKARTA, Indonesia — A volcano in eastern Indonesia spewed hot gas and debris a mile down its slopes Monday, but hundreds of villagers refused to leave areas just outside the danger zone.

Mount Karangetang, one of the country's most active mountains, has been at a state of high alert for two weeks.

More than 1,000 people have been evacuated from villages near the peak, but 500 more living further down the mountainside are refusing to budge, saying they want to tend to livestock and crops, said Replein Areros, a district official.

On Monday, the 5,850-feet volcano shot out at least 30 bursts of lava and hot ash, said Saut Simatupang, chief researcher at the government's vulcanology agency.

The government could not force villagers to leave or prevent them from returning to check on their property, he said, adding that there were no reports of injuries or major damage.

The last deadly eruption of Karangetang _ located on Siau, part of the Sulawesi island chain _ was in 1992, when six villagers died.

Indonesia, the world's largest archipelago, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the so-called "Ring of Fire," an arc of volcanos and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.


Cleveland Volcano, Chuginadak Island, Alaska

Location: 52.49N, 169.57W
Elevation: 5,674 ft (1,730 m)

What is happening to that volcano? It's erupting! 

In the upper left hand corner is Carlisle Island. In the center is Chuginadak Island!

The first person to note that the Aleutian Cleveland Volcano was spewing ash was astronaut Jeffrey N. Williams aboard the International Space Station. Looking down on the Alaskan Aleutian Islands two weeks ago, Williams noted, photographed, and reported a spectacular ash plume emanating from the Cleveland Volcano.

Alaska's newly erupted Cleveland Volcano gets the star treatment by an astronaut aboard the International Space Station.

Nestled in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands, the Cleveland Volcano erupted on May 23,2006 in a short-lived spurt that lasted only two hours.
A bank of fog (upper right) is a common feature around the Aleutian Islands.  The AVO reported that the ash cloud height could have been as high as 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level

But that was enough time for NASA astronaut and Expedition 13 science officer/flight engineer Jeffrey Williams aboard the ISS to grab a camera and catch Cleveland’s immense plume just after he reported the scene at about 7:00 p.m. EDT (2300 GMT) Tuesday.

In this image captured by Williams, Cleveland’s striking plume stands out from its blue sea surroundings as it moves from west-southeast from the volcano’s summit vent. By 9:00 p.m. EDT (0100 May 24 GMT), the plume had completely detached from the summit.

Williams and ISS commander Pavel Vinogradov are in the midst of a six-month mission aboard the space station. They arrived on April 1.
Credit:  J. N. Williams, International Space Station 13 Crew, NASA

Mt. Cleveland is a 5,675-foot-tall (1,730 m) stratovolcano on the west side of Chuginadak Island. Chuginadak volcano and an unnamed volcano form the east side of the island. Mt. Cleveland is almost perfectly symmetrical and 5 miles (8 km) wide at its base. It is also one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutians. While a small number of soldiers were stationed on the island, one was killed during an eruption in June of 1944. A brief eruption in May of 1994 sent ash to 10.5 km. This photograph shows a small steam plume above Mt. Cleveland.

The last large eruption was on 20 March 2001

On 19 March, an explosive eruption occurred at Cleveland. The National Weather Service estimated the top of the ash cloud was 30,000 ft. ASL.



MOUNT MERAPI -- The photo shows and unidentified object above the volcano that are often watched by UFOs. Indonesia officials evacuated 11,000 villagers from around Mount Merapi volcano as it shot out lava and superheated clouds of gas on June 6,2006 . The mountain's lava dome has swelled in recent weeks, raising fears that it could suddenly collapse and send scalding clouds of fast-moving gas and debris into populated areas
Merapi Volcano Erupts
By Anadolu News Agency (aa), Cakarta
Published: Sunday, June 04, 2006

 Beginning 20 days ago, the explosions emanating from Merapi Volcano have intensified.
Government official Subandriyo said the Merapi volcano on Java Island continues to spew hot clouds of ash and lava, and added Mount Merapi has intensified its activity since the other day. Subandriyo said the lava flow increased by 17 meters and reached to 100 meters. Due to the increased activity of Merapi tens of thousands of people around the volcano have been evacuated.
Reportedly there could be a relation between the increased activity of the 3,000 meters high Merapi, which is 400 kilometers East of the capital Jakarta, and the latest 6.3 magnitude earthquake that took place on May 27. More than 6,000 people were killed in the earthquake. Merapi had previously erupted in 1994 killing 60 people.

Rescuers Search for Two Trapped on Deadly Volcano

MOUNT MERAPI, Indonesia (June 15) - Rescuers dug through volcanic debris Thursday to reach two people trapped when Indonesia's most volatile volcano erupted, nearly enveloping a village with a searing gas cloud and forcing thousands of residents to flee.

The eruption Wednesday came just a day after officials lowered the alert level and people returned to the homes around Mount Merapi.  

"The situation is ... life-threatening," said Yousana Siagian, head of the government's Vulcanology and Disaster Mitigation Center, after the alert level for Mount Merapi was raised to its highest status again and it dumped thick ash on scores of houses.  

On Thursday, crews struggled to reach two people trapped in an underground emergency shelter by the eruption, officials said. Five other villagers were reportedly missing.  

The rescuers had been in touch with the two by cell phone. The bunkers, several of which dot the slopes of Merapi, are typically equipped with water and food.  

Scientists had thought that the 9,700-foot volcano was calming down after weeks of activity when a gas cloud cracked its fragile lava dome on June 8, easing the buildup of pressure.  

The alert level was dropped a notch on Tuesday, sparking widespread relief for people who have spent weeks in evacuation camps and were trucked home. But that quickly turned to concern Wednesday as Merapi demonstrated its famed unpredictability.

"We were very happy to go back in the morning, but as soon as we got there, we saw a massive cloud steaming toward us," villager Edi Egan said after being trucked back to the camp. "We all decided it was time to leave."  

Up to 20,000 people live in the danger zone, taking advantage of the rich volcanic soil. By nightfall, at least 1,100 were back in camps and some 12,000 others were given orders to leave.  

A superheated gas cloud nearly enveloped the village of Kaliadem, the closest residential area to the peak, only four miles away, said Siagian, the government vulcanologist.  

A similar cloud killed 60 people in 1994, and about 1,300 people died when Merapi erupted in 1930.  

Siagian said Merapi spewed hot clouds as far as four miles from the volcano's crater - the farthest since the alert status was first raised to the highest level on May 13.  

Ash covered one village 4 miles west of the crater with a gray blanket an inch thick, and soot rained down after dusk across many districts, officials said.  

As villagers started returning home Tuesday, they were told to stay alert, and evacuation trucks remained on standby. They quickly sprung into action.  

"The villagers are confused. They said it was safe, but hot clouds re-emerged. One thing is for sure - we have readied ourselves to evacuate anytime," said Budiono, the chief of Ngargosoko, a village six miles from the peak that was ordered evacuated.  

Some 12,000 residents of seven villages on the mountain's west side have been ordered to leave, said district official Edy Susanto. Some were still waiting for trucks to take them to shelters as dusk fell.  

"A heavy rain of ash and sand poured down on villagers," said Sugiono, an official from a monitoring post. He said it was very dark in the village, which was covered with smoke and ash. "People instinctively came to the shelters."  

Despite the danger, many people have stayed put over the last month, citing the need to guard their homes and look after crops and animals.  

The main dangers at Merapi are fast-moving bursts of blistering gases and rock fragments called pyroclastic flow. Experts say a massive vertical eruption threatening people many miles away will not occur.  

06-15-06 00:14 EDT


Copyright 2006 The Associated Press






updated 7-3-05


MAP - Potentially Active Volcanoes of the Western United States





Links to more general Volcanology information.

Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page: Dehn's "The Volcanic Homepage" (most complete listings found): Institution - Global Volcanism Program: Geological Survey general volcano pages: http://volcanoes.usgs.govVolcanosurfing pages by Hugues Dufumier: VOLCANOES









Volcano Links @ Disaster Net


Other Volcano News and Information Sites

California Volcanoes and Volcanic Areas
Smithsonian Institution, Gorda Ridge Reports(ACTIVE)
May 1915 Eruptions of Lassen Peak

Cascade Range Volcanoes
Smithsonian Institution, Axial Seamount Reports(ACTIVE)
NOAA Axial Seamount Volcano Report 1998(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Mt. Adams, WA Reports
Smithsonian Institution, Mt. St. Helens, WA Reports
Recent Mount St. Helens, WA Earthquake List

Alaska Volcano Observatoy
Smithsonian Institution, Chiginagak, Alaska(ACTIVE)

Smithsonian Institution, Volcanoes of the World
Smithsonian Institution, Adatara, Honshu, Japan
Smithsonian Institution, Sakura-Jima, Kyushu, Japan(ACTIVE)
SUWANOSE-JIMA, Japan,Erupted June 23, 2002
Kikai, Japan Erupted with plumes of smoke June 22, 2002
Raung, Java Erupted June 7th, 2002
Smithsonian Institution, ASo, Kyushu, Japan(2 killed 11/97)
Smithsonian Institution, Bezymianny, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Karymsky, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Kliuchevskoi, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Shiveluch, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Koryaksky, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
Smithsonian Institution, Avachinsky, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia(ACTIVE)
Ruapehu & White Island Eruptions, New Zealand

Smithsonian Institution, Popocatepetl, Mexico(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Pacaya, Guatemala(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Arenal, Costa Rica(tremors)
Smithsonian Institution, Poas, Costa Rica(ACTIVE)
Smithsonian Institution, Turrialba, Costa Rica
Smithsonian Institution, Campi Flegrei, Italy(sulfates and temperature, up)
Smithsonian Institution, Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies(ACTIVE)

Smithsonian Institution, Huila, Colombia(rumbling)
Smithsonian Institution, Galeras, Colombia(rumbling)
Smithsonian Institution, Villarrica, Chile(rumbling)

Earthquake Websites



Volcano Live News



 Indonesian volcano spits debris as hundreds more flee*

JAKARTA, July 11 (AFP) Jul 11, 2007

A smouldering Indonesian volcano shot rocks, ash and smoke into the air  for the third consecutive day Wednesday as hundreds more villagers
deserted its slopes, police and scientists said.

Volcanologists warned on Tuesday that an eruption of Mount Gamkonora,  located on the northeastern island of Halmahera may be imminent.

"There have been 11 small eruptions registered within the first 18 hours  of today (Wednesday)," geologist Toto Hendrasto told AFP from Ternate,
the capital of North Maluku province, 66 kilometres (41 miles) southwest  of Gamkonora.

The smoke column rose up to 2,500 metres from the crater of the  1,635-metre (5,461-foot) volcano, he added.

The column had been about 500 metres higher on Tuesday.

Risnu Malau, a policeman in the nearby town of Jailolo, said a total of  8,621 people from eight villages had fled to safer areas. He said most
local police had been dispatched to the slopes to help local authorities deal with the displaced.

Earlier, Hendrasto said that historically the volcano's eruptions have involved ash, smoke and small pieces of volcanic debris.

"Centuries ago, an eruption of Gamkonora involved lava and pyroclastic  flows, but in recent history, its eruptions have only been marked by
spewing ash. Hopefully, it stays that way too this time," Hendrasto told AFP.

Indonesia sits on the so-called "Pacific Ring of Fire," where continental plates meet, causing frequent volcanic and seismic activity. The archipelago nation has the world's highest number of active volcanoes.

Gamkonora, located some 2,700 kilometres (1,600 miles) northeast of  Jakarta, has erupted 12 times since records have been kept, most
recently 20 years ago.

Thousand of new volcanoes revealed beneath the waves

The true extent to which the ocean bed is dotted with volcanoes has been revealed by researchers who have counted 201,055 underwater cones. This is over 10 times more than have been found before.

The team estimates that in total there could be about 3 million submarine volcanoes, 39,000 of which rise more than 1000 metres over the sea bed.

"The distribution of underwater volcanoes tells us something about what is happening in the centre of the Earth," says John Hillier of the University of Cambridge in the UK. That is because they give information about the flows of hot rock in the mantle beneath. "But the problem is that we cannot see through the water to count them," he says.

Satellites can detect volcanoes that are more than 1500 m high because the mass of the submerged mountains causes gravity to pull the water in around them. This creates domes on the ocean's surface that can be several metres high and can be detected from space.

Data overload

But there is a multitude of small volcanoes that have gone undetected. The only way of identifying them is to manually find their outline on sonar measurements taken from ships.

Since the late 1960s, research vessels have been criss-crossing the oceans using sonar instruments to measure the depth of the ocean floor. They have generated 40 million kilometres of linear profiles showing the topography of the ocean bed between 60° North – the latitude of southern Alaska – and 60° South – corresponding to the tip of Patagonia.

But until now, no one had been able to sift through them all. So, Hillier and a colleague designed a computer programme that was able to analyse the huge amount of data and identify volcano-like shapes in the sonar lines.

The programme found 201,055 volcanoes over 100m tall. Previously, satellite data had identified 14,164 volcanoes over 1500 m high.

Hillier then extrapolated the data to estimate how many volcanoes exist beyond the areas the research vessels sounded out. He estimates there are about 39,000 volcanoes that are higher than 1000 m, leaving nearly 25,000 yet to be directly discovered.

Surprising distribution

Hiller says he was surprised to find that the density of small volcanoes dropped in the area around Iceland, as Iceland is known to be a hotspot for volcanic activity.

Another surprise was that he found fewer volcanoes on the seabed around Hawaii, another volcanic hotspot. He says his findings may mean that researchers need to re-assess their understanding of how submarine volcanoes are formed.

In 2006, a team of researchers from Japan discovered a new type of volcano which also defied conventional theories of volcanism. The "petit-spot" volcanoes, aged between one to eight million years old, did not sit at tectonic plate boundaries or over volcanic hotspots (see New type of volcano fires imaginations).

Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters (DOI: 10.1029/2007GL029874)

Jakarta (dpa) - 7-9-07 -  A volcano in the eastern Indonesian province of North Maluku erupted Monday spewing hot ash and black smoke up to 4,000-metres into the sky, prompting government authorities to urge residents in endangered areas to flee.

The 1,325-metre Mount Gamhonora volcano on Halmahera Island in North Maluku province, about 2,380 kilometres north-east of Jakarta, has become increasingly active in the past days.

On Monday the volcano erupted belching hot ash from its crater and sending volcanic materials to nearby areas, Antara news agency quoted volcanologist M Hendrasto as saying.

"As of 4:30 pm, we upgraded the volcano's to top alert and called the residents living on the danger zone areas to flee their homes to avoid unexpected incident," Hendrasto said, adding that his office had already raised the volcano's alert status to the highest level. That means villagers in 10 villages within an eight-kilometre radius must flee.

Frequent tremors have been recorded from Mount Gamhonora's crater since Sunday.

"We have informed the volcano's latest activity to local government administration so they could make an early preparation, including the preparation of emergency shelters for the fleeing residents," Hendrasto said, adding, "We have now monitoring the volcano's activity round-the-clock."

A team of volcanology experts would be dispatched to Halmahera island on Monday night and were expected to arrived on Wednesday, he said.

Indonesia has the world's highest density of volcanos, with 500 located in the so-called "Ring of Fire" along the 4,800-kilometres archipelago. Of these, 128 are active and 65 of them are considered dangerous.


Posted on Wed, Jun. 20, 2007

Hawaii volcano starts oozing lava

HONOLULU | Lava has oozed from a new location on Kilauea, one of the world’s most active volcanoes, scientists said.

Researchers on the island of Hawaii — the Big Island — had been looking for a new lava breakout point after hundreds of small earthquakes were recorded Sunday, suggesting that underground lava was shifting beneath the surface.

The small outbreak oozed about 150 feet from a 600-foot-long fissure in a forest about eight miles southeast of Kilauea’s summit, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory said Tuesday on its Web site.

Part of the park on the Big Island remained closed to protect public safety while researchers examined the latest lava breakout.



Japan Investigates Giant Column of Steam in the Pacific Officials Think Volcanic Eruption May Have Prompted Strange Water Vapor Plume

TOKYO (July 3, 2005) - Japanese coast guard officials said Sunday they believe an underwater volcanic eruption has caused a 3,300-foot high column of steam to rise from the Pacific Ocean near Iwo Jima.

The vapor was reported Saturday after Japanese troops stationed on the small island observed the massive, cloudy plume rise from the sea about 30 miles southeast of the island, said Maritime Self-Defense Forces Hiroshi Shirai.

Defense officials who flew over the area in a helicopter said the surface of the water appeared red where the column was reported, which could indicate underwater volcanic activity, Shirai said.

On Sunday, coast guard aircraft crews flew over the site and returned with a video image confirming the earlier reports, said Shigeyuki Sato, a spokesman for the service. The survey crew also found grayish mud rising up from the bottom of the ocean, but it was not immediately known whether any volcanic gases are being released.

The location is known as Fukutokuoka-no-ba, an undersea volcano which last erupted in 1986 for three days, Sato said.

The coast guard aircraft ended the day's survey after less than two hours due to safety concerns, but plan to return to the site as early as Monday for further monitoring. The service issued an international warning for vessels, urging them to stay away from the waters.

Japan's Meteorological Agency said there was no danger of tsunamis, sometimes caused by undersea seismic activity. Iwo Jima is about 700 miles southeast of Tokyo.

07-03-05 11:42 EDT

Copyright 2005 The Associated Press.



Mexico's Volcano of Fire, also known as the Colima volcano, is seen in a time exposure photograph during an explosion as lava and hot rocks flow down its sides and lightning flashes over its crater late June 1, 2005. The photograph was taken with a four-minute exposure. (Staff/Reuters)

CIUDAD GUZMAN, Mexico (Reuters) - Mexico's "Fire Volcano" spewed ashes almost three miles high on Sunday, its fiercest eruption of rock and lava in more than 15 years and its third major explosion in two weeks.

No casualties were reported after the afternoon eruption of the 12,540-foot (3,860-meter) Colima volcano in the western state of the same name.

Authorities in Ciudad Guzman, close to the volcano, told Reuters they were prepared to evacuate towns should the need arise.

Area villagers were last evacuated in May 2002 after a series of small blasts. The volcano's last major eruption was in 1913 but it has blown up intermittently in the past decade.

On May 23 and May 30 the volcano, located in a sparsely populated rural area about 300 miles from Mexico City, belched lava and glowing rocks, but prompted no evacuations.

Scientists at the University of Colima said Sunday's explosion was 20 percent larger than the May 30 eruption.

The "Fire Volcano" has been Mexico's most active volcano in recent years. Another volcano, Popocatepetl, stands near Mexico City, home to some 20 million people.


Mexico's Volcano of Fire erupts Monday.


  MEXICO CITY. Mexico (AP) -- Officials were evacuating residents of  some nearby villages on Tuesday after western Mexico's Volcano of Fire erupted for the second time in two days, shooting burning rock high in  the air and dusting the region with ash.

 The eruption shortly after 11 p.m. Monday sent a column of ash about 5  kilometers (3 miles) above the crater of the 12,533-foot (3,820-meter)  volcano, according to the University of Colima monitoring station.

 Officials in nearby Jalisco state announced a voluntary evacuation of  three villages nearest the crater and people in other towns were urged  to be ready to move.

 The new eruption followed a Sunday afternoon blast that sent a  towering column of black ash into the clouds. Officials called it the  strongest eruption in decades at the volcano that straddles the line between Colima and Jalisco states, 690 kilometers (430 miles) west of  Mexico City.

 The off-limits zone extended at least 7.5 kilometers (4.5 miles)  around the crater and an alert zone was in effect for 11.5 kilometers  (7 miles).

 The volcano staged spectacular eruptions Thursday night and Friday  morning, as well as on May 23 and May 30.

 The first eruption seen by settlers came in 1560. The volcanic system  is considered to be among the most active and potentially the most  destructive of the volcanoes in Mexico.

 A 1913 blast left a crater 1,650 feet (500 meters) deep.


updated - 6-1-06 - MT ST HELENS

Mexico 'Fire Volcano' in biggest blast for 15 years Andaman Volcano spewing smoke after 10 years (earth melting down?)
Mexico 'Fire Volcano' in biggest blast for 15 years
30 May 2005 23:50:00 GMT
Source: Reuters
SAN MARCOS, Mexico, May 30 (Reuters) - Mexico's "Fire Volcano" spewed a column of rock, ash and lava almost three miles (5 km) into the sky on Monday in its largest eruption for at least 15 years, civil protection officials said.

The government was considering evacuating tiny communities around the 12,540-foot (3,860 meter) Colima volcano in the western state of the same name after the predawn eruption.

"It's the largest explosion in the past 15 years and we are monitoring it because the activity is increasing, though gradually," said federal civil protection coordinator Carmen Segura. "If necessary we will carry out

AHe said the explosion was the biggest for 20 years.

Volcano spews smoke, lava
From correspondents in New Delhi
May 30, 2005
A VOLCANO on a tiny uninhabited island in India's tsunami-hit Andaman and Nicobar archipelago had started spewing smoke, dust and lava more than a decade after its last eruption, officials said today.

The Andaman and Nicobar islands are situated on an undersea fault that continues to nearby Indonesia. The island chain has experienced hundreds of aftershocks following the powerful undersea earthquake that caused the Asian


Dates in red are posted in Eastern Australian Time (UT + 10 hr)

Ambrym Volcano (Vanuatu)
16.25 S, 168.12 E, summit elevation 1334 m, Pyroclastic Shield Volcano
Monday 4th April 2005
Destructive acid rain and ashfall continue at Ambrym volcano in Vanuatu. Ambrym volcano has been in a destructive phase of activity for the past 12 months. The first emergency relief food supplies have started to arrive on the island, but more still needs to be done to meet the food and medical needs of the residents. Acid rainfall in January burnt residents of west Ambrym, and many people required medical assistance. Report by John Seach.

Vanuatu Earthquake (Magnitude 6.8)
Tuesday 12th April 2005
A large earthquake hit the SW Pacific Ocean on Tuesday, April 12, at 4:08 AM local time. The magnitude 6.8 earthquake hit 160 km WNW of Hunter Island Volcano in Vanuatu. Hunter Island, along with Matthew Island are the most southerly active volcanoes in Vanuatu.

Ambrym Volcano (Vanuatu)
16.25 S, 168.12 E, summit elevation 1334 m, Pyroclastic Shield Volcano
Wednesday 20th April 2005
Ambrym volcano has produced the strongest point source of sulfur dioxide on the planet for the first months of 2005. The volcano has been erupting in a more destructive manner than usual for the past year, and producing high sulfur dioxide emissions for at least six months. During the first ten days of March 2005, data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA’s Aura satellite showed high concentrations of sulfur dioxide drifting northwest from the volcano. Visual observations of the volcano at the end of March by John Seach recorded a strong night glow at Benbow, and the sound of bubbling lava could be heard deep in the crater, accompanied by continuous light-brown ash emissions. The volcano still poses a hazard to the local population with ashfall and acid rain affecting food crops and drinking water. During January 2005 many residents were burnt from acid rain and required medical assistance. Report by John Seach. (
More on Ambrym volcano...

Volcanoes of Vanuatu...

Lake atop Vanuatu volcano turns red
May 29, 2006 - 2:09PM
Volcanologists were wondering why a lake atop a rumbling volcano on the South Pacific island of Ambae has changed colour from blue to bright red.
Mount Manaro, one of four volcanos currently active in the island nation of Vanuatu, has been showing signs of erupting for only the second time in 122 years.
Vanuatu, formerly called the New Hebrides Islands, is a chain of 13 main islands 2,300 km east of north-east Australia.
"We are still ... trying to understand this change of colour in the lake from blue to red," Geology and Mines Department director Esline Garae said by telephone from the Vanuatu capital, Port Vila.
She said two scientists on Ambae Island were monitoring Lake Vui and seismic activity on the 1,500 metre Mount Manaro.
"If the change of colour ... comes from new activity in the ground or just chemical change in the lake - these are two things I want to know from those guys before I can say anything" about the danger posed by the volcano, she said.
Manaro last erupted in November 2005, forcing half the island's 10,000 inhabitants to evacuate their villages but causing no injuries. The eruption before that, in 1884, killed scores of villagers.
Three other volcanos in Vanuatu - Lopevi, Yasur and a two-crater volcano on Ambryn Island called Marum and Benbow - have spewed rocks, ash, smoke and steam over the South Pacific island nation in recent weeks.
However, activity has slowed in recent days, Garae said.
New Zealand volcanologist Brad Scott said Lake Vui's colour was "quite a spectacular red," but what had caused it "is the 64-thousand dollar question."
He said water samples from the lake would help determine what was happening in the crater and below it.
The colour change "could be a chemical process ... or magmatic gas (from molten volcanic rock) or something else coming into the lake," he said.
The peak on uninhabited Lopevi Island was the most recent to spurt sulfurous ash into the sky, causing havoc on 10 surrounding islands.
Garae said hundreds of inhabitants of nearby Paama Island fled from the falling ash, dense smoke and lava flows from Lopevi, she said.
"It was in a high state of eruption because ash was falling on Ambryn and Paama islands, but then ... ash flows ceased some days ago," she said.
The Yasur volcano on Tanna Island in the south of the archipelago was "of more concern for tourists and tourism agencies," who visit it frequently, she noted.
"A reminder that it is at Level 2 ... forbidding people to go close to the mouth of the volcano" had been posted after it tossed out rocks and some lava.
She said further observations of Yasur would likely be made next week to confirm whether the activity was continuing to decline

Karthala Volcano (Comoros)
11.75 S, 43.38 E, summit elevation 2361 m, shield volcano
Tuesday 19th April 2005
Earlier reports of 17 people killed by the eruption of Karthala volcano appear to be incorrect. No fatalities have been recorded. Karthala volcano erupted on Sunday sending glowing lava boulders shooting into the sky. There is concern that ash and acid rain has contaminated water supplies in the area.
More on Karthala Volcano...

Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia)
6.10 S, 105.42 E, summit elevation 813 m (Rakata), Caldera
Tuesday 19th April 2005
Alert level has been downgraded to 1 at Krakatau volcano in Indonesia. There has been a decrease in volcanic seismology over the past few days.
15 April 2005 deep volcanic = 7 events ; shallow volcanic = 5 events
16 April 2005 deep volcanic = 2 events ; shallow volcanic = 8 events
17 April 2005 deep volcanic = 0 events ; shallow volcanic = 2 events
18 April 2005 deep volcanic = 0 events ; shallow volcanic = 1 events
It is still forbidden to visit the summit crater of Anak Krakatau volcano.
More on Krakatau volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Karthala Volcano (Comoros)
11.75 S, 43.38 E, summit elevation 2361 m, shield volcano
Monday 18th April 2005
The area around the Karthala volcano is in darkness with ash and gritty rain falling. Ten thousand people have evacuated from the area. A pilot reported seeing the start of a lava flow, which is confined to the inside of the crater at this stage. People from the villages of Trelezini and Tsorale have been evacuated to the capital Moroni, which lies on the west coast of Grande Comore, about 15 km from Karthala's crater. 
More on Karthala Volcano...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Monday 18th April 2005
The alert level at Talang volcano in Sumatra has been reduced from 4 to 3. The volcano erupted on Tuesday 12th April. Volcanic activity has declined over the past few days. There is still the possibility of phreatic eruptions.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Karthala Volcano (Comoros)
11.75 S, 43.38 E, summit elevation 2361 m, shield volcano
Monday 18th April 2005
Karthala Volcano erupted Sunday on the island of Comoros, 300 km off the east coast of Africa. Residents near the crater have been advised to evacuate their homes. Authorities are checking for contamination in the area after residents reported a grey discolouration in water near the volcano. Volcanic ash is falling and combining with torrential rain and high winds in the area. People from the villages of Trelezini and Tsorale have been evacuating to the capital Moroni, trying to get as far away from the volcano. The last eruption of Karthala volcano was in 1991 when an explosion occurred at Choungou-Chahalé crater. In 1860 a lava flow from the summit caldera reached the capital city of Moroni.
More on Karthala Volcano...

Tangkuban Parahu Volcano (Indonesia)
6.77 S, 107.60 E , summit elevation 2084 m, stratovolcano 
Sunday 17th April 2005

Tangkuban Parahu volcano remains at level 3 alert (4 is the highest). The volcano normally has about 1000 tourists per day. Since an increase in seismic activity under the volcano last Wednesday, there has been evacuation of at least 600 vendors selling souvenirs, food and drinks for the tourists. 
Three tectonic earthquakes were felt in the area on Friday. Bandung volcanology office recorded the first tremor, measuring 5 on the Richter scale at 9:06 a.m. with its epicenter located some 33 kilometers south of Bandung city. 
At 10:46 a.m., a second large earthquake, measuring 6 on the Richter scale, again shook the city with its epicenter some 70 kilometers south of Sukabumi city in West Java. The epicenter was 70 kilometers beneath the Indian Ocean. The third earthquake that hit the city measured 5.6 on the Richter scale at 11:17 a.m, with its epicenter in the Sunda Strait where Anak Krakatau continues to shows signs of restlessness. The third earthquake was also felt in Jakarta. 
Of the three earthquakes, the first resulted in the most damage as its epicenter was only five kilometers beneath the Gunung Halu district in Bandung regency, 30 kilometers south of Bandung city. More than 170 houses and school buildings in the area were damaged.
The earthquakes were not only felt in Bandung city, which is preparing for the Asian-African Summit next week, but were also felt in other outlying cities such as Cimahi, Garut, Tasikmalaya and Pangandaran beach in Ciamis regency. 

The earthquakes were tectonic in orogin, and were not caused by volcanic activity. However, tectonic activity can disturb volcanoes. The last activity at Tangkuban Parahu was in 2002 when ash plumes rose 2.5 km above the volcano.
More on Tangkuban Parahu volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia)
6.10 S, 105.42 E, summit elevation 813 m (Rakata), Caldera
Saturday 16th April 2005
Seismic activity decreased at Krakatau volcano on 15th April. Visual observations were made of the volcano from Pasauran. Seismic activity for 15th April: A Type Volcanic earthquakes 7, B Type Volcanic 5. Krakatau remains at level 2 alert (out of 4).
More on Krakatau volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Saturday 16th April 2005
Over 40,000 people have been evacuated from the slopes of Talang volcano in Sumatra. A five kilometer exclusion zone has been declared around the craters. There is potential for significant eruption. Aircraft should exercise caution when overflying the area. Talang volcano remains at the highest level of alert at 4.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Lake Toba (Indonesia)
2.58 N, 98.83 E, summit elevation 2157 m, Caldera
Saturday 16th April 2005
Lake Toba lies on Sumatra faultline running along the western part of Sumatra. Lake Toba is a large caldera formed by volcanic and tectonic processes, and was the site of the world's most recent supervolcano 74,000 years ago. There is no recent volcanic or seismic activity in Lake Toba, except a small fumarole field at the southern tip of Samosir Island, despite the recent large tectonic earthquakes in Sumatra. There is a seismometer network at Sorikmarapi, the nearest active volcano to Lake Toba. In 1988 there was concern that the water levels in the lake were dropping, but this was due to overuse of water for hydroelectric generation power plant. A press release from the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation on April 5 2005 stated that "Lake Toba will not erupt in the near future."
More on Toba Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Tangkuban Parahu Volcano (Indonesia)
6.77 S, 107.60 E , summit elevation 2084 m, stratovolcano 
Saturday 16th April 2005
Kawah Ratu emited gas to a height of 20m. Seismic activity on 15-16 April from 1800-0600 hr recorded 79 volcanic earthquakes, and 2 gas emissions. The volcano remains at level 3 alert (4 is the highest alert level).
More on Tangkuban Parahu volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Saturday 16th April 2005
The eruption of Talang volcano during the week has caused the evacuation of thousands of refugees, who have spent a third night in tents. The eruption has also affected tea plantations close to the volcano, which have been covered in ash. The evacuated villages are: Bukit Cileh (3,485 people), Batu Bajanjang (3,632), Koto Laweh (4,660), Kampung Batu Dalam (8,112), and Air Batumbua (2,815), a total of 22,713 people. In addition 5,000 residents from nearby villages volunatarily left their homes.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...
Map of Sumatra Volcanoes...

Krakatau Earthquake (Indonesia)
6.10 S, 105.42 E, summit elevation 813 m (Rakata), Caldera
Friday 15th April 2005
A magnitude 5.4 earthquake hit near Krakatau volcano in Indonesia on Friday 15th April. Krakatau remains at alert level 2 (out of 4). Krakatau is one of the world's most famous volcanoes. The paroxysmal eruption in 1883 created 30-40 m high tsunamis which affected the coast of Sumatra and Java. The earthquake was felt in Jakarta and Lampung province on Sumatra island. At least 100 houses were damaged, but no injuries were reported.

Earthquake Location Map...
More on Krakatau volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Volcano Alerts in Indonesia
Friday 15th April 2005
Nine volcanoes are at raised alert level according to Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.
1) Marapi (Sumatra), alert level II (yellow)
2) Talang (Sumatra), alert level IV (red), erupted on 12th April.
3) Krakatau (Sunda Strait), alert level II (yellow).
4) Tangkuban perahu (Java), alert level III (orange).
5) Semeru (Java), alert II (yellow).
6) Egon (Flores), alert level III (orange)
7) Karangetang (Sulawesi), alert level III (orange)
8) Lokon (Sulawesi), alert level II (yellow)
9) Dukono (Maluku), alert level II (yellow).
More on volcanoes of Indonesia...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Friday 15th April 2005

Talang volcano remains at stage 4 alert. Today there were 6 volcanic earthquakes from midnight to 0600 hr. Estimated emission of SO2 gas was 1000 tonnes.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...
Map of Sumatra Volcanoes...

Tangkuban Parahu Volcano (Indonesia)
6.77 S, 107.60 E , summit elevation 2084 m, stratovolcano 
Friday 15th April 2005
Tangkuban Parahu volcano remains at alert level 3. The Bandung area was hit by three felt earthquakes. Between 0500 and 1200 hr today there were 67 volcanic earthquakes.
More on Tangkuban Parahu volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia)
6.10 S, 105.42 E, summit elevation 813 m (Rakata), Caldera
Thursday 14th April 2005
Krakatau remains at alert level 2 (out of 4). Seismic activity as follows.
13 April, 13 volcanic earthquakes.

12 April, 32 volcanic earthquakes.
11 April, 32 volcanic earthquakes.
10 April, 12 volcanic earthquakes.
The public is advised to stay away from Anak Krakatau. Information supplied by Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI).
More on Krakatau volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Thursday 14th April 2005

April 14 observations: 5 type A volcanic earthquakes, 4 volcanic tremor. Magma is still moving under the volcano. There is potential for a significant eruption. Large eruptions are possible following large earthquakes.
April 13 observations: White-gray ash plume rising 250 m above solfatara inside Kawah Mati. Gabuo Atas crater emitted 10 m high white gas plume. Seismicity decreased compared to the previous day.
Recorded earthquakes were: 2 deep volcanic, 4 shallow volcanic, and 3 explosion earthquakes.
April 12 observations: There were 11 deep volcanic earthquakes, 48 shallow volcanic, and 38 explosion earthquakes. More than 25,000 people have been evacuated from the surrounding area. Alert level 4 remains in place (out of 4). The eruption of Talang volcano was probably precipitated by the April 10 Mentawai earthquake. Aircraft are advised to exercise caution when overflying the area.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...
Map of Sumatra Volcanoes...

Tangkuban Parahu Volcano (Indonesia)
6.77 S, 107.60 E , summit elevation 2084 m, stratovolcano 
Thursday 14th April 2005
The alert level remains at 3 (out of 4). No eruption has occurred yet, but seismic activity has commenced. Thin, white smoke is seen at Ratu crater and new Upas crater. Low to moderate smell of sulphur. Tourists and locals are forbidden to enter the Tangkubanperahu area. 
Seismic activity: 14th April, 35 volcanic earthquakes in 6 hours. 13th April, 7 volcanic earthquakes in 5 hours.
More on Tangkuban Parahu volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Krakatau Volcano (Indonesia)
6.10 S, 105.42 E, summit elevation 813 m (Rakata), Caldera
Wednesday 13th April 2005
Krakatau volcano has been raised to alert level 2. Krakatau is one of the world's most famous volcanoes. The paroxysmal eruption in 1883 created 30-40 m high tsunamis which affected the coast of Sumatra and Java.

More on Krakatau volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Tangkuban Parahu Volcano (Indonesia)
6.77 S, 107.60 E , summit elevation 2084 m, stratovolcano 
Wednesday 13th April 2005
The alert level has been raised to 3 (out of 4) at Tangkuban Parahu volcano in west Java, Indonesia. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia reports seismicity has increased at the volcano, and sulfuric gas was strongly smelt near Ratu Crater. The summit area has been closed to visitors. Tangkuban Parahu volcano overlooks the city of Bandung, home to 2 million people.
More on Tangkuban Parahu volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...

Talang Volcano (Indonesia)
0.97 S, 100.67 E, summit elevation 2896 m, stratovolcano
Tuesday 12th April 2005
Report by John Seach.

Talang volcano in Indonesia erupted this morning, with ash to 25,000 ft. Talang volcano is located in Sumatra, close to recent large earthquakes. Talang is on a list of volcanoes identified as eruption risks by John Seach following the large earthquakes in the region. (See Volcano Live news reports for10th April 2005, and 30th December 2004). The volcano is at alert level 4 (out of 4) and volcanic activity has been increasing following Mentawai earthquake of 10th April. Talang volcano is just 40 kilometers east of the coastal capital of West Sumatra province, Padang.
More on Talang Volcano...
Volcanoes of Indonesia...
Map of Sumatra Volcanoes...

Papua New Guinea Earthquake (Magnitude 6.5)
Tuesday 12th April 2005
A large earthquake hit the Bismarck Sea region of Papua New Guinea. The magnitude 6.5 earthquake hit on Monday, April 11, at 10:20 PM local time. The earthquake was located about 100 km NE of Manam volcano, the site of the largest eruption in the world in 2004.
More on Manam Volcano...
Volcanoes of Papua New Guinea...

Indonesia Earthquakes (2004-2005) and Volcanic Eruptions
Sunday 10th April 2005
Report by John Seach

Two large earthquakes hit Sumatra, Indonesia on Sunday 10th April, along the same fault line which was responsible for the great earthquakes of 26 December 2004 (Mag 9.0), and 29 March 2005 (Mag 8.7). Large earthquakes are capable of disturbing volcanic systems, and a watch should be kept over the volcanoes of Sumatra and Andaman Islands for change in activity. Volcanoes to watch - Barren Island (Andaman Islands), and Sumatra volcanoes Peuet Sague, Telong, Toba, Sorikmarapi, Marapi, Tandikat, Talang, Kerinci, Kaba, Dempo, and Krakatoa in the Sunda Strait. The risk of a large volcanic eruption resulting from the recent Sumatra earthquakes is not great, but nevertheless should not be ignored.
Volcanoes of Indonesia...
Earthquakes and Volcanoes...

Himalaya Earthquake (Magnitude 6.0)
Friday 8th April 2005
A large earthquake has hit the Himalaya region of Tibet on Friday, April 08, 2005 at 04:04 AM local time. The earthquake was located 250 km N of Pokhara, Nepal, close to the world's tallest mountains. The closest active volcano to the earthquake is Kunlun in Western China, which last erupted in 1951. Also closeby is the Kunlun Fault - one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet.
More on Kunlun Volcano...
Volcanoes of China...

Anatahan Volcano (Mariana Islands)
16.35 N, 145.67 E, summit elevation 788 m, Stratovolcano
Wednedsay 6th April 2005
An explosive eruption occurred at Anatahan volcano at 0300hr on April 6 local time, sending an ash plume to an altitude of 50,000 ft which drifted east. A lower level ash plume covering a large area drifted south at an altitude of 18,000 ft. This is the largest eruption of the volcano since its first historical eruption in 2003. The health department has warned residents to stay indoors as the ash may cause respiratory problems and eye and skin irritation. The Emergency Management Office, has placed Anatahan Island off limits until further notice. Aircraft should pass upwind of Anatahan or beyond 10 nautical miles downwind from the island and exercise caution within 10 nautical miles of Anatahan. The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano began 10 May 2003. The second historical eruption began about 9 April 2004. The third historical eruption of Anatahan began on 6 January 2005.
More on Anatahan volcano...

Manam Volcano (Papua New Guinea)
4.10 S, 145.06 E, summit elevation 1807 m, Stratovolcano
Wednedsay 6th April 2005
Low-level volcanic activity continues at Manam Volcano in Papua New Guinea, and further large eruptions are possible. A total of 1880 families (10,677 people) from 16 villages have received tarpaulins to establish temporary shelters. A total of 1087 water containers have been distributed to 1750 families. A total of 12,760 tablets were distributed to 1880 families. Many people complained about the taste of the water after treatment, and many did not return for further supplies. The long-term future of the care centres is uncertain because the land has become the focus of a dispute with traditional landowners. 
More on Manam Volcano...
Volcanoes of Papua New Guinea...





Awesome power of Iceland volcano

The eruption has been spectacular (Image: Dr Matthew Roberts)

A spectacular volcanic eruption under an Iceland glacier has forced airlines to divert flights to avoid flying through gas emissions from the blast. The volcano first erupted on Monday, sending thick black smoke and ash heading towards continental Europe.

Since then, Grímsvötn volcano has produced a steady stream of ash and lava, with explosions sending ash up to 12,000m (40,000 feet) in the air.

It is thought to have been caused by drainage of a lake under the glacier.

As the lake drained, this pressure was released, allowing magma to rise to the surface. It was like lifting the lid off a pressure cooker

Officials say people or homes are not at risk from the eruption of Grímsvötn, which is in an unpopulated area of the island.

But ash from the eruption under Vatnajökull glacier - Iceland's biggest - has landed in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The eruption was also violent enough to set off earth tremors.

The ashfall in Iceland has caused some problems for wildlife in the area. For instance, farmers have brought their sheep inside to
prevent them from grazing on land covered with shards of abrasive "glass-like" material deposited by the eruption.

Oli Thor Arnarsson of the Icelandic Meteorological Office said a change in the wind could send the cloud toward central Europe.

"We are speculating that the eruption should be clear tomorrow. But if there are more eruptions, we may have ash over central Europe," he said.

Cancelled flights

Trans-Atlantic flights had been diverted south of Iceland to avoid the ash cloud, and domestic flights to the northeast of Iceland were cancelled.

Dutch airline KLM said it had cancelled 59 flights, stranding hundreds of passengers at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport, because of the cloud of ash hanging above Europe.

"Because of company rules we can't fly below it and we can't fly above it," said airport spokesman Frank Houben.

In addition to visibility problems, abrasive particles released into the air by the volcano can get inside aircraft engines.

"It's the equivalent of sandblasting an aircraft engine with grit," Dr Matthew J Roberts of the Icelandic Meteorological Office in Reykjavik, Iceland, told the BBC News website.

"As the aeroplane draws in large quantities of air, suspended particles cause abrasion inside the engine that can result in the aircraft stalling."

This happened once in 1989, when a 747 flew through an ash cloud from an eruption of the Redoubt volcano in Alaska, US. The engines stopped, causing the plane to lose several hundred feet in altitude.

Luckily, the pilots managed to restart the engines after several attempts, averting a catastrophe.

Warning issued

Over the last few weeks, increased earthquake activity below the Vatnajökull ice cap warned scientists that an eruption was likely.

At 2010 GMT on Monday evening, scientists detected a series of earthquakes from the Grímsvötn volcano beneath Vatnajökull, prompting monitors to issue a public warning.

The earthquakes were followed at 2150 GMT by a sequence of volcanic tremors that confirmed an eruption was underway. Shortly after, doppler radar detected the first volcanic plume breaking through the ice.

"The volcano was maintained under pressure by the weight of a lake above it. As the lake drained, this pressure was released, allowing magma to rise to the surface," Dr Roberts explained.

 "It was like lifting the lid off a pressure cooker."

Grímsvötn last erupted six years ago and before that in 1995 and 1993, causing flooding.

The volcano lies on the Atlantic Rift, the meeting of the Euro and American continental plates.

The three major volcanoes of Iceland - Hekla, Katla and Grímsvötn - lie on the same fault line.

During the late 18th century, continuous volcanic eruptions in Iceland heavily damaged a quarter of the island nation, and blotted out the sun's light for several years.

VENIAMINOF Alaska Peninsula, USA 56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2,507 m: All times are local (= UTC - 8 hours)

During 10-17 April. 2004, Veniaminof showed heightened seismicity with several episodes of volcanic tremor and earthquakes. Seismicity decreased significantly prior to the emission of a gas plume with some ash throughout 18 April. The most vigorous phase occurred at about 1730 on 18 April when the plume rose to ~0.5 km above the crater. At about 1130 on 19 April another period of heightened seismic activity began. Due to the increased activity, Veniaminof was upgraded to Concern Color Code Yellow.

Background. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the N, is deeply notched on the W by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the S. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2,156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.


Mount Rainier More Unstable Than Previously Thought...08/12/03

by Mitch Battros (ECTV)

No, this is not sensationalism. And no, it is not a time to panic. As I have stated at the first of this month, we would in fact be receiving what might appear as startling. It is important for us to remember we are simply witness to a very natural cycle. Yes, there will be extraordinary events unfolding. And yes, some may be prone to "over-react". And yes, this would be a good time to practice the many disciplines which keep us grounded and focused. And perhaps most importantly, remember you are not alone. In contrast to the eighty's, there are thousands of us, if not millions, who have woken up from a slumber sleep. Together, we can indeed move mountains.

This Just In! Mount Rainier is determined to be more unstable than previously thought. William E. Scott is the scientist in charge of the Cascades Volcano Observatory, a USGS center that monitors volcanoes from California to Alaska. Dr. William Scott just yesterday made this profound statement. Mt. Rainier is ?A monumental threat?.

Volcanologists determined in the late 1990s that the mountain is far more unstable than previously thought, and they have since persuaded local emergency management officials to launch an early-warning system and a major public-awareness campaign. Tens of thousands of people are being told to ?enjoy the volcano in your back yard? but to be prepared to run away from it ? fast. The town nearest Rainier has about 40 minutes to flee. Inside the national park that encircles the mountain, scientists in recent months have shortened the run-for-it survival time to five minutes.

During this 'freakishly' warm, dry and cloudless summer in the Pacific Northwest, astonishing views of Mount Rainier have been uncommonly common. Clear sight lines have made it possible to gaze at Rainier and appreciate it less as an intermittent aesthetic pleasure and more for what the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) warns that it really is.

It is my contingency the "freakish" warm weather is due to the Sun. In just the last two days, we have seen solar winds in the high range, producing geomagnetic storms. It is also my presumption, that CME's have been erupting, and even possible M-Class flares even though the more popular space weather monitors have not flashed the "M-Class or X-Class" flare emblem. I make this determination by working backwards. (see equation) The solar wind charts along with the Kp index scale indicates high solar activity. Just because some popular private website, namely "", is not flashing the M-Class flare insignia, does not mean it has not occurred. I am going on record to challenge current monitor websites as to the accuracy of their display. I am calling on all amateur space weather monitors to send in your independent reports. Something just doesn't smell right.


Sunspots => Solar Flares => Magnetic Shift => Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream

Currents => Extreme Weather

and Human Disruption (mitch battros)

Beware of "Lahars":

Lahar is an Indonesian term that describes a hot or cold mixture of water and rock fragments flowing down the slopes of a volcano and (or) river valleys. When moving, a lahar looks like a mass of wet concrete that carries rock debris ranging in size from clay to boulders more than 10 m in diameter. Lahars vary in size and speed. Small lahars less than a few meters wide and several centimeters deep may flow a few meters per second. Large lahars hundreds of meters wide and tens of meters deep can flow several tens of meters per second--much too fast for people to  outrun.

As a lahar rushes downstream from a volcano, its size, speed, and the amount of water and rock debris it carries constantly change. The beginning surge of water and rock debris often erodes rocks and vegetation from the side of a volcano and along the river valley it enters. This initial flow can also incorporate water from melting snow and ice (if present) and the river it overruns. By eroding rock debris and incorporating additional water, lahars can easily grow to more than 10 times their initial size. But as a lahar moves farther away from a volcano, it will eventually begin to lose its heavy load of sediment and decrease in size.

Jill Hawk, chief ranger at the (mount rainier) park made the high risk of danger very clear when she made this startling statement. ?I don?t have time to evacuate people,? she said. ?I have time to run.?

A new risk assessment by the USGS has drastically narrowed the survival window in the case of a lahar. It shriveled from a maximum of 23 minutes to five minutes. That applies to people working in National Park Service buildings and staying in a large guest lodge in a valley on the much-visited southwest corner of the park.

Breaking Volcano Eruption News!

Sunday, August 10, 2003

New crater lake forms at White Island Volcano...
Stromboli Volcano (Italy)
38.79 N, 15.21 E, summit elevation 926 m, stratovolcano

Strombolian activity continues from the northern summit crater. Episodes of greater activity have ejected material beyond the crater rim. A Strombolian eruption from the southern crater on Saturday 9th August produced ash to an elevation 200 m above the crater. Seismic activity produced 155 events over the past 24 hours, which is similar to the previous day. SO2 release from the volcano yesterday measured 570 t/d which is an increase from 270 t/d in the first days of August. There is no change in the amount of CO2 release from the volcano.

White Island Volcano (New Zealand)
37.52 S, 177.78 E, summit elevation 321 m, stratovolcanoes
Sunday 10th August 2003

Over the last few months a substantial lake has formed in the active crater at White Island. This is the largest lake to have formed within this crater and has recently drowned the active vents. As a consequence future eruptions will occur through the crater lake and, if ejected by eruptions, moderate volumes of water could flood down the Main Crater floor towards the sea. This is a significant change in the nature of volcanic hazards on the island. The current lake volume is large enough that it will influence the next phase of eruptive activity from the volcano and result in a new hazard to people visiting the island.

Yellowstone Volcano (USA)
44.43 N, 110.67 W, summit elevation 2805 m, calderas
Saturday 9th August 2003

Scientists plan to set up a temporary network of seismographs, Global Positioning System receivers and thermometers to monitor increasing hydrothermal activity in the Norris Geyser Basin and gauge the risk of a hydrothermal explosion. The goal of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory is to pinpoint underground sources of hydrothermal steam and learn more about how seismic activity affects the basin.

Scientists do not expect a volcanic eruption. However, small hydrothermal explosions occur in the park almost every year. Usually they are not noticed until after the fact. The Norris Back Basin has been closed since July 23 due to the formation of new mud pots, changes in geyser activity and much higher ground temperatures, as hot as 200 degrees in some areas. Vegetation has been dying due to thermal activity and altered eruption intervals for several geysers. Increased steam discharge has been continuing, according to park officials. Hydrothermal activity has been increasing each year in the basin, but the increase in recent weeks has been especially rapid.

Carlsberg Ridge Volcano (Indian Ocean)
Friday 8th August 2003

Scientists have discovered a "smoking" volcano 3,000 metres below the surface of the Indian Ocean. Scientists on board the research vessel detected a huge, dark plume of water, 600 metres thick and over 30 kilometres wide, rising hundreds of metres above a lava-strewn valley on the Carlsberg ocean ridge. "Black smokers", often teeming with exotic lifeforms, are known to exist in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans but their discovery in the Indian Ocean is very recent.

Kliuchevskoi Volcano (Russia)
56.06 N, 160.64 E, summit elevation 4835 m, stratovolcano
Thursday 7th August 2003

A mountaineer died, apparently of head injuries, after his climbing party hit bad weather on a volcano in Russia's far east, Russian officials said on Wednesday.

Four climbers were still trapped on the mountain, while 12 of the party had made it back to base camp with the help of Russian rescue workers. Kliuchevskoi is the highest active volcano in Eurasia and smokes almost permanently. It is popular with mountaineers and is seen as having one of the world's most perfect volcanic cone shapes.

Kliuchevskoi Volcano (Russia)
56.06 N, 160.64 E, summit elevation 4835 m, stratovolcano
Wednesday 6th August 2003

A badly hurt climber and 16 members of his party are trapped on the slopes of a volcano in Russia's far east. A helicopter which tried to reach the group was forced back by bad weather and fog. The alarm was raised by three members of the party who managed to get off the volcano and alert the emergency services. Kliuchevskoi volcano is active and suffers rockfalls, earthquakes and gas emission. The volcano remains a popular destination for climbers, who try to reach the top to peer into the crater. Officials have criticised the group for attempting to scale the volcano without the help of local guides.

Scotia Sea Earthquake (Magnitude 7.5)
Tuesday 5th August 2003

A major earthquake has occurred in the Scotia Sea 190 km (120 miles) E of Coronation Island, South Orkney Islands. The August 4, 2003, Scotia Sea earthquake occurred on the boundary between the Scotia plate and the Antarctic plate. In the epicentral region, the Scotia Sea plate is moving to the west-northwest with respect to the Antarctic plate. The relative velocity between the two plates is not well determined but is likely to be about 1 cm/y. The overall boundary is a transform-fault boundary, involving predominantly strike-slip faulting, although prior normal-faulting earthquakes have also occurred. No tsunami is expected to be generated from the earthquake.

Mt Etna Volcano (Italy)
37.73 N, 15.00 E, summit elevation 3350 m, shield volcano
Tuesday 5th August 2003

Vigorous degassing continues at the Northeast Crater, and some less intense degassing is occurring at the Bocca Nuova. There are no indications of eruptive activity, but the volcano remains restless. There has been seismicity in the eastern sector of Mount Etna in the past ten days, with a burst of four small earthquakes (magnitudes up to 2.6) on 30 July 2003 that affected an area between the villages of Milo and Zafferana on the eastern flank of the volcano.

Dieng Volcano (Indonesia)
7.2 S, 109.9 E, summit elevation 2565 m, complex Volcano
Tuesday 5th August 2003

Initial reports of eruptions at Dieng have not been verified. Small ejections of mud from Dieng's Sileri crater noted on 20 & 24 July, rising 25-50m. Since then, mud spatterings rising 1m. No significant increase in crater temperatures or anamolous seismicity appear to have occurred with these events.

Gamalama Volcano (Indonesia)
0.80 N, 127.325 E, summit elevation 1715 m, stratovolcano
Friday 1st August 2003

Mount Gamalama, an active volcano in Indonesia's eastern Maluku province, erupted on Thursday blanketing the regional capital of Ternate with thick ash. There were no reports of casualties or damage following the eruption and Residents had not been evacuated. Dust and ash fell in Ternate, around 30 kilometers (20 miles) north of the mountain. Gamalama, which last erupted in 2000, is one of 500 volcanoes in Indonesia. Of these, 128 are active and 65 are listed as dangerous.

Montserrat volcano causes havoc

This is probably connected to Carib plate motion and certainly the 6.1 quake in the Queen Charlotte Islands (coast of British Columbia) over the weekend signaled tectonic activity of the Pacific Plate.

Associated Press

POSTED AT 10:16 PM EDT Sunday, Jul. 13, 2003

Olveston, Montserrat — Montserrat's volcano spewed thick clouds of ash into the air Sunday, plunging several Caribbean islands into a gritty haze that forced the cancellation of dozens of flights and caused a car accident that killed a man.

The ash blanketed this British territory in a layer so thick tree branches snapped under the weight, said Richard Herd, director of the Montserrat Volcano  Observatory. The damage to vegetation was significant, he said.

"There's no one in the area right now but as a precaution we're asking people in surrounding areas to stay indoors. There's still a chance of more explosions and rock fall," he said.

On St. Croix, a man died when his car swerved off the road because of poor visibility due to the ash, U.S. Virgin Islands police said.

Houses and cars across much of the Dutch Caribbean territory of St. Maarten wore a grimy coat of ash. Residents were told to stay indoors or wear surgical masks.

American Airlines canceled some 50 flights from Puerto Rico to islands in the area, including St. Thomas, St. Maarten, Anguilla, Guadeloupe, Dominica and St. Kitts.

"There is a lot of ash and to avoid any problems we decided to cancel the flights," said Minnette Velez, an American spokeswoman in San Juan, the capital of the U.S. territory.

Continental, Winair, LIAT, Caribbean Sun and Caribbean Star also suspended operations in affected areas.

Part of the volcano's dome collapsed late Saturday, sending a torrent of mud and ash down into the adjacent Tar River Valley and pelting distant houses and buildings with rocks.

In October, 300 people living near the valley were evacuated after scientists warned the volcano's dome had shifted its growth toward the north.

The Soufriere Hills volcano sprang to life in 1995, chasing away more than half the British Caribbean island's population. A 1997 eruption buried much of the south, including the capital, Plymouth, and killed 19 people.

Today, the peak still casts a reddish-orange glow at night. Scientists monitor it and report any changes to the island's 4,500 residents, who live in northern areas declared safe.

Once a bustling island where sheep and cattle roamed the hills and chartered yachts pulled in weekly on tourist runs, Montserrat's economy has been hit hard by losses in tourism and farmland in the south, which is now uninhabitable under mountains of volcanic, gray ash.

© 2003 Bell Globemedia Interactive Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Volcanoes In California, Idaho, and Pacific Northwest Building Towards Catastrophic Eruptions


Larry Park

As you read this, know that massive forces tens of miles beneath your feet are building towards what could be another catastrophic series of volcanic eruptions if present trends in the monitoring data remain. The consequence of a complacent attitude towards living within the destructive reach of an active volcano such as Mount Rainier outside of Seattle, Washington may soon come to haunt the millions of Americans living within a day’s drive of the Ring of Fire. Up until now, the excuse has been that we simply cannot predict when these events will happen. Yet, the technology to accurately predict such events days, months and even years in advance exists today even as we wait in the dark for another mysterious act of God. And why? The answer lies more with how science is funded than anything else.

The Answer Is About Deep Earth Patterns

A little over 150 years ago, in 1851, twenty-one eruptive events from ash or lava eruption to steam bursts occurred in the western United States from Northern California to Oregon and the state of Washington. Volcanoes involved Mt. Baker (WA), Mt. Rainier (WA), Mt. St. Helens (WA), Mt. Hood (OR), Three Sisters (OR), Mt. Shasta (CA), Cinder Cone (CA), and Chaos Crags (CA). Are events quickly shaping up to a much larger repeat to recent history? New research data indicates a definite – yes.

Revolutionary technology today is observing an alarming deep subterranean process, which is bringing to life an underground system affecting the full state of California, the Pacific Northwest, and eastern Idaho (Yellowstone). Effects of this activity are providing small clues with regard to microquakes or swarms with moderate magnitudes up to 4’s, however the equivalent magnitude of ‘silent’ quake activity in the subterranean process are far greater. Why isn’t mainstream science aware of this? The answer is two reasons: the earth is being very ‘stealthy’ and second, mainstream science theories of crustal mechanics are faulty.

The Earth is Giving Us Stealthy ‘Clues’

The Earth’s plates are comprised of a complex and dynamic number of systems spanning the globe that interact with each other in subtle ways and over long periods of time. However, the tools we use to observe the plates are at the very skin of earth’s crust. Seismographs do allow us to peek somewhat at physical structures and earthquakes also give us some glimpse of areas of activity. But the earth can move large amounts of deep magma silently, where current technology is blind. For what little we do see at the surface – as notable points below - how much is unseen in the deep subterranean?

A large bulge was recently discovered on South Sister Cascades Mountain in Oregon:

Nature News Service, Science Update, 22 May 2002

Sister develops tell-tale bulge

“After 1500 years of quiet an Oregon volcano threatens to blow..”

“An ominous bulge on a dormant volcano in Oregon, accompanied by the faint whiff of magma from deep within the Earth, suggests that the mountain is rousing itself from a 1,500-year slumber…”

Eruptions from Steamboat Geyser – considered one of the tallest and most powerful geysers in Yellowstone can be from 4 days to 50 years apart. Recent years have seen an increase in the normally rare eruptions.

Yellowstone is known to have a massive magma chamber that has been bulging upward to near 3 ft from early survey work from 1923 to recent (1985)- although a net subsidence from 1985 to present.

Yellowstone National, 2003

‘Geology – Calderas’

“Earthquake data also suggest that soft or molten rock is close to the surface of Yellowstone. Minor earthquakes jiggle Yellowstone hundreds of times each year, but above the caldera the foci of these quakes are extremely shallow, less than three miles below the surface. These clues suggest that the material underlying Yellowstone is still very hot and ductile, as would be expected if a magma chamber still exists.

Swarms of earthquakes beneath Mount Hood (Oregon)

U.S. Geological Survey, January 14, 1999

Mt Hood – Information Statement

“..All of the earthquakes in the Mount Hood swarms have characteristics similar to tectonic earthquakes rather than volcanic earthquakes (indicative of magma movement). The recent Mount Hood earthquakes most likely result from regional tectonic stresses, although they may also be caused by deep seated changes in the volcano's plumbing system. Additional and significantly different geological and geophysical indicators would be expected before any future eruptive activity. Scientists will continue to monitor the situation closely..”

Swarms of earthquakes at Coso Volcanic Caldera (California) that has a known magma chamber, where it too has been moving upwards over geologic time.

Swarms of earthquakes at Long Valley Caldera (California) which has a known magma chamber that has been bulging upwards over the last few decades.

Recent discovery of strong ‘slow’ earthquakes moving across Pacific Northwest recurring every 14 months.

Geodesy Newsletter, 28 Mar 2002


In February 2002 a slow earthquake occurred in the Puget Sound region. Based on recurrence studies another is expected this Spring.

Make no mistake, these events are linked to much larger activity. They are directly related to what is “going on deep underneath”. Mainstream science is unaware of how dynamic the earth crustal mechanics actually turns out to demonstrate – it can change its elasticity of the crust where processes can accelerate at alarming rates.

Research instrumentation which is able to ‘see’ deep within the crust is watching a real-time interaction of all of these volcanic areas, from nearly the full length of California (Salton Sea to Mt Shasta), parts of Nevada, Pacific Northwest, and Eastern Idaho. This process has been building and is has been observed to be driven by Southern California from Salton Sea Basin/Mexicali-Imperial Valley rift region moving northward. While Pacific Northwest activity has been simultaneously responding at key volcanic locations in the Cascades. Recorded data illustrates a complex plumbing system that is acting as one – or the equivalent of a volcanic version of a much bigger San Andreas Fault except with a ‘Y’ to it.

Northward movement of the strongest energy – or the ‘head’ – of activity is as far northward as Owens Valley CA latitudes. Strong Earthquakes – such as Hector Mine 7.1 – have been observed to be symbiotic with the progression. Over the months, the subterranean progression has maintained a strong presence deep under the Coso Volcanic complex latitude. In recent data, the process now has strengthened a unified response in the Pacific Northwest subterranean readings. With the continued influx of solar flaring, the deep process is continuing to gather strength.

As a Catastrophic Process Gathers

Strength, We Debate – Pointlessly

The Holy Grail of those seeking to predict earthquakes and/or volcanic eruptions would be if it were to do so with such precision that these events could become as common as Doppler radar forecasts are to weather. The ability to predict earthquakes and eruptions with extremely high degree of accuracy is here today. That is, for those willing to show the courage needed to think outside their well-funded boxes of science.

Current geological theory states that prediction is impossible (or close to it) due to the nature of sudden fracture (brittle fracture theory). Other researchers who state that animals can sense pending quakes, that humans are sensitive to ‘ear tones’ or headaches prior to, that odd cloud formations precede quakes, that ‘glowing lights’ occur before/during quakes, that quakes follow sun/earth/moon alignment (ocean & earth tides) or ‘syzygy’, are all at odds with a common theory. The answer is – both are correct.

Huh? Yes, both are correct. What has been eluding science is that there is a process that converges with ‘brittle fracture’ theory, but diverges on larger scale magnitudes. Landslides, rock bursts (in caves), man-made detonations all are accurate on ‘brittle fracture/elastic rebound’ dynamics. But what changes from ‘brittle fracture’ to an undiscovered process is so new to science that it represents a facinating study all to itself. A complex process that can only be compared to Classical physics (Newtonian) verses Quantum Physics. Classical Physics using force, mass, acceleration works accurately in our everyday world, but when applied to the tiny atomic world it doesn’t work. A new model where energy ‘jumps’ up or down in unit numbers referred to as ‘Quanta’ needs ot be applied. Yet both are accepted as valid and legitimate.

The theory of ‘Self Organized Criticality’ which is the basis for ‘brittle fracture’ theory in layman’s terms is ‘the straw that broke the Camel’s back’. Forgive the humor, but the earth operates in a mode that has a ‘nuclear’ straw that ‘blows up the Camel’. In science’s model of ‘the straw that broke the Camel’s back’, all is silent teetering on the edge of instability - a pending earthquake. Given this model, there cannot be any of these phenomena (animals, ‘ear tones’, headaches, etc). Yet, the earth does emit energy, very powerful indeed, that has been observed with this technology to disrupt animals, cause body aches in people, cause several different cloud formations to suddenly form, and elevate the temperature of the earth, etc.

What the Debate is About –

Who’s Theory Says What

A broken, outdated theory: Imagine a wine glass –representing a fault - in a vise. The pressure of the vise is from plate movement or plate tectonics. Given enough pressure the wine glass shatters. This is the analogy to ‘brittle fracture’ earthquake genesis.

What really happens: Now imagine a powerful opera singer who sings a note at the same resonant frequency of the wine glass. Reaching a peak resonant power that matches the wine glass ‘tone resonance’ will result in the wine glass shattering. The result is the same, a shattered wine glass or fault (note: pressure in the fault is necessary for this process too)

Prior to large earthquakes, the fault in the earth will resonate powerfully just like the wine glass. This building process continues until either the wine glass resonant energy is dampened or the final burst of resonance occurs.

What is this energy? How does it occur? Some scientists have measured low frequency electromagnetic waves – or like radio waves – prior to earthquakes. A notable example was Antony Fraser-Smith on the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. However, this technique is elusive. That is due to the nature of the energy. Special equipment & sensors are required to detect it where traditional electromagnetic equipment will give very poor results. The emanations are ‘scalar’ and the strength of the energy is very large.

Faults resonate naturally in scalar. Power is built within faults from collapse of this resonance leading to even stronger resonant conditions. Strong resonating faults can be detected at distances over thousands of kilometers. Un-impeded, the process continues until the climax burst with earthquake following.

Biological entities such as humans, animals, and insects are affected by scalar emanations. Strong scalar emanation causes indirect ‘ear tones’ in auditory complex in the ears, cause magnetic sensitive biologicals to be affected, results in changes in magnetic fields (sliding refrigerator magnets) – thus insect disruption & bird sensitivities, cause sudden ionization in upper atmospherics leading to ‘bubble chamber’ like condensations, causes luminous phenomena such as glowing lights, the list goes on and on.

What is interesting is that the earthquake starts much earlier than the traditional mechanical movement. Recent discovery of ‘Silent’ or ‘Slow’ earthquakes – which violate ‘brittle fracture’ theory – are just the beginning phase of a traditional quake. However, this occurs more on a molecular basis in that crustal rigidity or modulus of elasticity changes (i.e. becomes rubbery). This is why P-waves are observed to travel slower before large earthquakes.

How did all of this knowledge come to be? From years of measurements of hundreds of earthquakes in California, Washington, and Oregon using very radical technology unknown to mainstream science. It has taken a number of generations of sensory equipment to perfect while also unravelling the mysteries of the complex processes leading to the genesis of the earthquake.

History of ‘Breakthrough’ Technology

Terra Research has conducted nearly 10 years of research and has developed technology that is able to observe the complete seismic genesis process. It is based on very sensitive scalar detection technology employing ‘mass resonant sensory devices’ (MRSD). It may be said that these devices are similar in nature to our human ability to react to scalar except the sensors react to primary signals. A book has been published that goes into detail of the research.

Documented in the book are recorded scalar climax burst events prior to earthquakes for M6.8 Satsop WA earthquake, M5.0 Olympia WA earthquake, and M7.9 Denali AK earthquake. Book extensively documents research data & technology, which has provided the astounding list of findings on earth dynamics.

New Discoveries unknown to current science –

The earth has specific gyroscalar resonant frequencies specific to latitude (i.e. San Francisco 1.4hz, Coso Volcanic region 1.13-1.15hz, Mt Hood 2.78hz, Mt St Helens 3.1hz) increases northward and is symmetrical to the poles (highest, 14.998hz at N/S poles).

Sudden scalar impulses emanate from faults & feed gyroscalar resonance to faults up to thousands of kilometers away

Resonating faults can ‘quiesce’ or ‘quiet’ other faults as one frequency becomes dominant. This action tends to disperse quakes equally in time and location (primary events, secondary aftershocks dominate and are inverse to quiesce as region of primary is saturated from primary event).

Solar activity generates waves of scalar that feed fault resonance and lead to earthquakes. A delay process of three to 10 days from initial solar impact is typical to burst climax.

Gyroscalar resonance stimulates the mesosphere/ionosphere to potential ‘air glow’ condiitons. Can change thermodynamics (accelerate) in re-entry vehicles or create charge accumulation conditions within the metallic body traversing scalar fields.

Scalar impulses from the earth can disrupt aircraft directly above (scalar penetrates faraday cage skin of aircraft). May cause ‘flameout’ in sensitive designs if impulse is endothermic.

Animal, insect, & human disruption reliably occurs from earth scalar emissions. However, the genesis process can take weeks, disturbing biologicals without a good match to the resulting quakes. This is due to the final process or climax that leads to the quake verses the ‘competition’ of differing frequencies quelling other fault activity.

Syzygy has been observed to create the strongest resonant building cycles – however, the final process involves the interaction of differing frequencies competing for climax burst. This interaction can alter the ‘window’ timing, as events tend to quell others and space more in time/location.

Slow or Silent earthquakes are part of the genesis process (climax burst) but of a different amplitude to frequency ratio (of scalar energy burst).

Traditional Earthquakes have large amplitude to frequency ratio with a scalar burst of 10 to 15 seconds (many hours prior) corresponding to M5.0, 40-50 second scalar burst to subsequent M6.5 to 7.0, 8 to 10 minute scalar burst for subsequent M7.8 to 8.3.

‘Earthquake Boom’ - Upper frequency version of the earthquake family has a high frequency content in burst genesis vs latitudinal frequency.

Faults are not necessary for earthquake genesis (just a scalar burst climax).

Lighting strikes pulsing at latitudinal frequency (match) will result in a surface quake (within seconds).

A ‘lurch’ version earthquake can occur – notable by pipeline breaks.

Earthquakes generate powerful waves that transfer thousands of kilometers away.

Modulus of Elasticity changes as energy builds prior to earthquake.

Scalar emissions can elevate crustal temperature a number of degrees C prior to earthquake.

Powerful low frequency resonant quakes can occur (1 to 2 hz) at low vibrational levels in a wide region lasting many hours, with a prior scalar resonance up to 24 hrs previous. .

Volcanic activity generates harmonic scalar resonance precursors.

Strong gyroscalar resonance disrupts some traditional seismic sensors causing mysterious ‘sinewaves’ to be recorded. This from thermic & magnetic disruption.

Powerful scalar transients from earth can destroy microelectronics.

Faults emanate peculiar frequency components unique to themselves.

‘Slow’ earthquakes are also ‘movers’ of magmatic bodies (i.e. the same genesis process & subsequent mechanical movement occurs at depth).

Just one or two of these discoveries would be of major significance. Yet, this list is not from theory, it is from research data – from observing what the earth does with instruments that can ‘see’ the full dynamics of the earth. It is time to move away from debate of theoreticals to real data, away from statistics, chance, probability to real waveforms, real energy, real processes.

What Should Science do?

The most important step science needs to take is to open up the paradigm model rather than continue to detract sources of insight. Geologist Jim Berkland is very correct on the path of syzygy and animals, ‘ear tone’ sensitives are accurate in detection of earth generated waves, unusual cloud formations are real and earth generated. Perhaps with the ‘rest of the story’ coming to light, the studies which tried to find a correlation with a few puzzle pieces missing becomes understandable.

Is the Technology Ready?

Yes. The most useful instrument in observing the earth is employing a form of a very large radio telescope that stretches from border to border – the electrical power grid. With proper filters and a scalar resonant receiver, the earth signals & activity opens up the crust as an MRI machine opens up the view of the body. Locating activity is done by frequency (tones on a piano – in Fast Fourier Transform) and signal characteristics.

Mass Resonant Sensory Devices allow accurate validation of local emanations just as Doppler Radar allows accurate weather monitoring. Special MRSD coils allow fault mapping when faults are resonating, thus allowing mapping of buried faults or faults which have not revealed themselves from prior recorded earthquakes. Of note – a mapped fault which is not on the books measures strong scalar which follows just east of Nev/CA borderline in South Lake Tahoe. This mapped fault aligns with angle edge of fault that is on the ‘books’.

A private form of consumer device is close to market. Sensor TR8500S in current testing with complementary filter amplifier.

Is there timing to any Volcanics?

Perhaps the best answer is that close monitoring will be important. Yes there is an unprecedented level of activity going on, but it currently is deep. However, science should be aware that the earth dynamics allows events to occur far faster that mechanical models would suggest. This is due to the changes in crustal mechanics from so much energy saturating the crust. The subterranean activity is real. Another double-edged sword to this energy is that it tends to ‘quell’ other seismic events – thus the seeming lack of large quakes recently in California. But at the same time, this powerful resonant energy can quickly stimulate a region with a fault and accelerate the genesis process. These dynamics are the very reason science has been puzzled about the change in ‘time prediction model’ regarding Parkfield. Deep activity started to occur before the optimal window of Parkfield CA anticipated earthquake. So it has the ability to quell but the flip side is what is ‘alive’ that is causing the change.

Move Forward –or- Intensify the Debate?

We have the opportunity to resolve one of the most complex and yet fascinating forms of God’s nature, the earthquake; Or we have the opportunity to engage in a harmful debate (such as threatening fines) which likely will prevent any advance information to be disseminated or used in a positive respect for our society. We now are rushed into an arena where we never expected or prepared for – having information such as a prior large earthquake which forces a position of making decisions, who should know and who shouldn’t. I do not wish this horrible dilemma on anyone. Facing this reality in foreknowledge of other seismic events has brought only one conclusion, we must work to get information to all as best and accurate as technology permits, with society working together to adapt to consequences just as reports of pending hurricane technology is today.

May 21, 2002
Villagers Flee Mexico Volcano Slopes as Lava Spills

MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Villagers streamed off the slopes of the Volcano of Fire on Monday, escaping in trucks a possible eruption of Mexico's most active volcano after a lava spill prompted authorities to order a massive evacuation.

The evacuation of some 74 people in the villages of Juan Barragan, El Agostadero and Los Machos followed the weekend evacuation of 213 people in the village of La Yerbabuena. All of the hamlets are within 6 miles of the crater of the volcano, which is also called Colima.

Experts at Colima University have said the 12,664 feet volcano's seismic activity has intensified along with explosions and that its lava crust has broken, causing lava to spill over the southwestern slopes.

This suggests the volcano, which lies in a sparsely populated region about 350 miles from Mexico City, is close to erupting, they say.

"The seismic activity has increased relative to the last few days," Luis Salazar, a deputy Civil Defense director in Colima, said. In February, it began spouting rock and ash.

The volcano on the border between the western states of Colima and Jalisco was dormant for almost 200 years until November 1998, when it erupted and forced the evacuation of hundreds of villagers.

Though often overshadowed by its more famous counterpart Popocatepetl, which stands on the edge of Mexico City, Colima now is ranked as the most active in Mexico.

It has erupted about 25 times in the past 500 years, with the last major explosion in 1913.

Authorities have sealed off the area in Jalisco and Colima states within 4 miles of the volcano's summit and placed communities within a 7.2 mile radius on alert.

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano
April 10, 2002

As of the 8th of April, the Instituto Geofisico (IG), has reported that 10 earthquakes of long period and one continuous tremor activity were registered that to a large extent is correlated with emissions of steam and ash. It has been possible to observe gas columns and ash (in moderate concentration to loss) that reaches between 1 and 2 km of height and go, mainly to the north of the volcano. In the morning a little ash fell towards the North flank. To noon of today it happened to lahar (mud flow) that blocked the channel that of Pelileo leads to Bańos. From the 2 of April a new period of tremor activity is registered. The parameters that characterize the activity of the volcano (seismicity, lines of vision, etc) indicate that this one is alternating between periods of loss to moderate activity. On the other hand due to the climatic conditions that stay in the zone of the volcano is possible the generation of mud flows or "lahars", thus it is necessary that the population stays letter to the messages that emit means authorized. By the type of activity that is registered during these days, it is necessary that the zones of high risk are avoided, like broken and high parts of the volcano. The official colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on YELLOW for the Tungurahua - Geophysical Institute of Quito from SWVRC

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano
April 10, 2002

As of 1100 (1700 GMT), the 9th of April, CENAPRED has reported that in the last 24 hours, the Popocatepetl volcano showed an increase in its activity with respect to previous days. There were 7 exhalations, mainly accompanied by steam and gas. Also at 0438 a moderate exhalation with explosive caracteristics was recorded. During this event some incadescence was observed. At 0545 a volcanotectonic event of magnitud 2.3 and 5.7 km below the crater was also recorded. After this activity the volcano went back to steady levels. The other monitored parameters remain without important changes. At the moment of this report we can observe the volcano with low fumarolic activity. The presence of a lava dome in the crater, confirmed during a flight on March 7th, implies the possibility that within the next days or weeks low level explosive activity could be observed. The traffic light of volcanic alert is maintained yellow-2. It is recommended not to approach the volcano to less than 12 km from the crater, although the road between Santiago Xalitzintla (Puebla) and San Pedro Nexapa (Mexico State), including Paso de Cortés, is open for controlled circulation. The colour of the volcanic alarm light remains on YELLOW. Information from CENAPRED

Colima Volcano Alert
western México
19.514 N,103.62 W, summit elevation ~3 850 m, Stratovolcano
Saturday 2nd February 2002
Thousands of people in Mexico have been told to be ready for evacuation after warnings that a volcano could erupt within the next 48 hours. A six-kilometre exclusion zone has been set up around the volcano, Colima, in northern Mexico. Special army units are being sent to the region to prepare to evacuate the local population. 

Seismologists say the volcano is showing signs of a bulge in its cone, ndicating a build up of lava. The governor of the Colima state Fernando Morena said either the lava would start to flow in the next few hours, or the pressure would continue to grow, leading to a big explosion. 

Colima, which lies some 500 km west of Mexico City, is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico. (BBC)

Mexico Evacuates Villagers as Volcano Spews Lava

February 05, 2002

LYERBABUENA, Mexico (Reuters) - Mexico's eastern Colima state was evacuating some 300 villagers from the base of a volcano on Tuesday that was spewing fiery rocks and lava and threatening a larger scale eruption.

The so-called Volcano of Fire has been rumbling for the past week and scientists said it could erupt as pressure builds behind a dome that has formed inside its crater.

The dome, 213 feet tall, covers practically the entire 600-foot diameter of the volcano's crater.

The Volcano of Fire, rising some 12,664 feet into the sky, has been relatively active since 1998 but saw activity increase dramatically in the past week, causing about 120 small earthquakes a day.

A spokesman for the state Civil Protection Authority said the Army and Red Cross were assisting in the evacuation of Yerbabuena, a village that lies at the base of the volcano, also known as the Colima Volcano, and about 25 miles north of the city of Colima, the state capital.

"We are going to evacuate the villagers as a precaution," the spokesman said.

Villagers were being taken to shelters in the town of Comala, which lies outside the risk area surrounding the skirt of the volcano, although some were hesitant to leave their homes and belongings unguarded.

"If it is necessary, send my wife and girls to the shelter, but I am staying to look after my animals," said Manuel Cuellar, a local coffee grower.


Congo volcano threatens Rwanda town
18/01/2002 14:38

By Themistocle Hakizimana

GOMA, Congo (Reuters) - A river of molten rock is pouring from a volcano in Congo, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma.

U.N. officials estimated on Friday that 45 people had died in the 24 hours since tongues of red hot lava began forking from Nyiragongo volcano through villages on its slopes, down through Goma itself and into Lake Kivu, which straddles the Rwandan border.

Gaping holes opened up in Goma, normally a settlement of more than 500,000 but now virtually a ghost town, and molten rock reduced roads and buildings to fiery ash.

"The smell of sulphur is everywhere, there are tremors every 10 minutes," said Desire Bukasa, a radio controller for a U.N. agency in Goma.

"I'm trying to work out how to evacuate the town. There are fissures opening up in the town which billow smoke. People are scared."

As fresh plumes of smoke billowed from the top of the 3,469-metre (11,380 foot) volcano, residents said the Rwandan town of Gisenyi across the border was also under threat with magma now only four km (two-and-a-half miles) away.

"People in Gisenyi have closed the shops, even the market. They are just afraid that the same situation could occur in Ginsenyi," said Aloys Bade Habinaza, a Rwandan journalist.

Military sources in Gisenyi said the number of people who had fled to Rwanda could be as high as 300,000.

"This is going to be a human catastrophe," said an official of a contingent of U.N. observers deployed in Goma as part of efforts to end a civil war.

"We have to find them shelter, put them up in camps. There's no electricity, no running water."

Overnight, the horizon was one long stretch of flames and smoke, marked from time to time by a flare in the sky as fuel stations exploded.

As dawn broke on a fire-scarred landscape draped with smoke and mist, rescuers recovered corpses from Goma where lava had engulfed whole houses.


Florian Westphal, a spokesman in Nairobi for the International Committee of the Red Cross, quoted colleagues in Goma as saying access was a big obstacle in relief efforts.

"Our warehouse and workshop garages with seven trucks have been destroyed. The airport is unusable and the port in Goma has been destroyed by an explosion," he said.

"The water company is no longer operational, two out of three pumping stations are out of order."

Streams of lava, in places two metres (six feet) high, continued to snake down Goma's streets on Friday, while parts of the runway at Goma airport had disappeared under the smoking tide.

The eruption is just the latest calamity to befall the lakeside port, which lies at a crossroads for rival armies, refugees and rebels on Congo's border with Rwanda.

The U.N. observers are in Goma and other towns as part of efforts to end a three-year-old war in which Rwanda and Uganda support rebels trying to topple the Kinshasa government, which in turn is backed by Angola, Zimbabwe and Namibia.


The wealthy district of Himbi appeared to have been spared. More hilly than the rest of Goma, its slopes served as a barrier to a lava flow at least two km (1.2 miles) wide.

Kerosene storage facilities at Goma's airport burned for a long time. The United Nations evacuated all its staff from a base near the airport on Thursday.

Nyiragongo volcano is one of eight volcanoes on the borders of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, a region dense with tropical forests and home to rare mountain gorillas.

Only two of the volcanoes are active, Nyamuragira, which erupted early last year causing no casualties, and Nyiragongo.

In 1977, scores were killed when a sea of lava burst through fissures in Nyiragongo's flanks at 60 km (40 miles) an hour, which experts said was the fastest lava flow on record.


Dozens of people are thought to have been killed as a river of molten rock poured from a volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

United Nations officials estimate that 45 people have died in the 24 hours since red hot lava began pouring out of Mount Nyiragongo down through the eastern town of Goma and on into Lake Kivu, which straddles the Rwandan border.

Hundreds of thousands of people in the Goma area - a part of the country controlled by rebel forces - were forced to flee into Rwanda to escape the lava flow.

"This is going to be a human catastrophe," said an official from a contingent of UN ceasefire observers deployed in the eastern Congolese city of more than half a million.

"We have to find them shelter, put them up in camps. There's no electricity, no running water."

Eyewitnesses said huge areas of the town were ablaze after the lava cut a swathe of destruction 50 metres (55 yards) wide through the town, destroying buildings and setting off explosions at power plants and fuel stores.

As dawn broke, rescuers dug out corpses from hardening lava that had engulfed entire houses.

Parts of the runway at Goma airport have disappeared beneath the smoking tide.

In the nearby town of Gisenyi, just across the border in Rwanda, displaced people lined the sides of the roads overnight, lying down to sleep anywhere they could find a patch of ground.

Military sources in Gisenyi said the number of people who had fled across the border into Rwanda could be as high as 300,000.

The World Food Programme says it is standing by to provide any emergency supplies required.


A Congolese officer told the BBC's Helen Vesperini that Congolese troops had started looting in Goma, but Rwandan soldiers were trying to restrain them.

"There are some buildings still standing, but there are certainly no people around,"he said.

The flow of lava is now said to have stopped after reaching Lake Kivu on the border.

Clouds of white smoke are hanging over the area and continued earth tremors are keeping alive fears of another eruption.


The 3,469-metre (11,380 foot) Nyiragongo volcano is one of eight scattered along the borders of Rwanda, Congo and Uganda, and is only about 10 kilometres (six miles) from Goma.

The region is dense with tropical forests and home to rare mountain gorillas, which inhabit the slopes of the mostly dormant volcanoes.

Goma itself is a poor town sandwiched between Mount Nyiragongo and the shores of Lake Kivu, whose population has been swelled by thousands of civilians who have fled the region's many conflicts.

Lys Holdoway, a spokeswoman for the charity Oxfam which has a team in Goma, told BBC News Online on Thursday there were fears that debris from the volcano could cause the lake to turn acidic, endangering people as they cross it to escape.

On 10 January 1977, almost 2,000 people were killed in less than 30 minutes when Nyiragongo erupted, producing a 1,000-metre wide river of molten rock that reached the northern edge of Goma, incinerating everything in its path.


Date: 12/11/2001 2:15:15 PM Pacific Standard Time

Mexican Volcano Hurls Glowing Rocks

.c The Associated Press

MEXICO CITY (AP) - The towering Popocatepetl volcano near Mexico City shot out glowing rocks along with ash and gas late Monday, but experts did not expect a major explosion.

The glowing rocks fell within about 100 yards of the volcano's crater, according to the National Center for the Prevention of Disasters, which monitors the 17,886-foot volcano some 40 miles southeast of Mexico City.

It said the eruption was not likely to threaten nearby towns, but traffic near the volcano was restricted.

Volcanologists said the volcano appeared to be destroying a small lava dome which had formed in the crater since mid-November.