compiled by Dee Finney
CURRENT EARTH ROTATION CHARTS
Wind speed and direction respond to pressure gradient forces that exist between high and low pressure areas.
In the Northern Hemisphere and because of the rotation of the earth, winds circulate in a clockwise fashion around
areas of high pressure and in a counter-clockwise manner around regions of lower pressure. Air pressure decreases
relatively slowly with height in regions dominated by warm air and relatively rapidly with height in areas where
cold air prevails. As a result, wind patterns in the upper atmosphere tend to flow in an oscillating manner around
major pockets of warm and cold air.
Wind results from physical forces that act on the air.
A force is an influence on a body which causes the body to accelerate (change speed or
direction). Newton's First Law of Motion states that a body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will
remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. If forces balance (no net force), then we have either
no motion or uniform motion in a straight line.
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion states that the acceleration (rate of change of velocity) of
a body is directly proportional to the net force upon the body, or F = ma, where F = force, m = mass, and a = acceleration.
Gravitational force- keeps the molecules in the atmosphere from moving into space. Gravity's influence is stronger
near the earth's surface and weaker aloft.
Vertical pressure gradient force- closely balances gravity so that all the molecules in the atmosphere are not
forced into the lowest meter above the ground. The vertical pressure gradient force results from molecules in the
high pressure near the earth's surface trying to move upward where the pressure is lower.
Coriolis force- the force that results from Earth's rotation.
The Coriolis force solely results
from living on a rotating object -- Earth. It acts only on objects moving with respect to the earth's surface (e.g.,
the air, planes, birds, missiles, etc.). It is only significant over long distances (e.g., hundreds or thousands
of miles) and long time spans (e.g., 12 hours or longer). Hence, tornadoes are not influenced by the Coriolis force.
Neither is the water draining in your sink. The Coriolis force always will deflect objects to the right
in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. The Coriolis force will never change the
speed of an object, only its direction
Friction- the drag exerted on the air by the earth's surface (e.g., plants, trees, buildings, mountains, etc.).
Centrifugal force- the tendency for a body to resist a change in direction
If Earth did not rotate, air currents would flow directly from areas of high pressure
to areas of low pressure. However, because Earth does rotate, air currents ultimately become involved in a tug-of-war
between pressure gradient forces and the Coriolis force. The result is that air circulates counterclockwise
around areas of low pressure in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise around areas of high pressure
DANGER OF WIND IN MOBILE HOMES
HURRICANES AND SPINOFF TORNADOS
AVOID TRAVEL IN THESE CONDITIONS
Blowing/shifting snow: Loose snow and wind force more than 11 m/sec (fresh breeze, 18
knots) with blowing snow partially obstructing road view and/or danger of road conditions deteriorating within
the next few hours.
Blizzard: Wind force 16 m/sec (moderate gale, 30 knots) or more and snowfall, difficult
traveling weather, considerable danger of road conditions worsening at short notice.
Fog: Heavy fog with obstructed vision. In the interest of traffic safety motorists
are advised to proceed with caution.
WIND NEWS - 2002
ALASKA - WINTER STORM WARNINGS
DOPPLER - WEATHER WARNINGS
MOUNTAIN WEATHER AND WINDS
PACIFIC OCEAN WEATHER AND WINDS
PROTECTING YOURSELF FROM COLD AND WIND
TORNADO DANGER SIGNS
WIND DIRECTIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN
Wind gusts of up to 80mph
were reported and a tornado was confirmed in eastern . ... Within four km.,
the wind would be of
tornado force, six hundred km. ...
Just that quick, the wind
and rain hit the house and rushed past, ... That
wind had to have been over
200 miles an hour. The rain and wind
was viscious. ...
This morning Earth entered a solar wind
stream flowing from a coronal hole on the Sun. NASA's ACE spacecraft, which
monitors the solar wind,
Sep 14, 2000 ... All wind
instruments were destroyed, expert engineering analysis of the damage
indicated that gusts were in the range of 150-200 mph at ...
The runaway atmosphere is heading our way in the
form of a solar wind
stream. ..... April 4th marked the beginning of a major solar
wind storm, ...
--SWEAP, the Solar Wind
Electrons Alphas and Protons Investigation: The most ... WISPR can actually
see the solar wind,
allowing it to image clouds and ...
On Tuesday, two fishermen drowned off Colombia's coast, and
540 people were left homeless after heavy wind and rain
destroyed half the buildings in a ...
Sep 30, 2002 ... (Oct. 2, 2002) -
Packing 110 mph wind, Hurricane Lili gained strength
and churned Wednesday toward the Gulf Coast, where residents
of the solar-wind magnetic field,
the structure of the ... it more
vulnerable than usual to solar
wind disturbances. ...
power is the conversion of wind
energy into a useful form, such as
electricity, using wind
turbines. At the end of 2007,
worldwide capacity of ...
The storm, dubbed "Little Debby" so
far, is expected to become a
hurricane again with wind speeds
of up to 105 mph by an expected
Friday approach southeast ...
Solar wind speed: 405.2 km/sec
density: 4.9 protons/cm3 ...... A
solar wind stream flowing
from the indicated coronal hole
could reach Earth on or about Jan
Apr 20, 2008 ... I didn't have
the brilliant foresight to see it,
but it's pretty common in business
that where you wind up is not
where you thought you'd be ...
The solar wind is still blowing,
but the crack has closed, ... The
display was sparked by a solar
wind stream which hit Earth's
magnetic field on July 21st. ...
In 2008 and 2009, the sun set Space
Age records for low sunspot counts,
weak solar wind, and low solar