YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO GETTING READY TO BLOW ITS CORK ?

updated 8-7-14

     WATCH YELLOWSTONE GEYSER
      http://www.nps.gov/features/yell/webcam/oldFaithfulStreaming.html

Yellowstone's massive mantle plume is getting bigger. This reservoir of super heated viscose rock is at least two and a half times larger than previously thought. A new study disclosed on Oct. 27th at the Geological Society of America annual conference, stated a huge earthquake measuring 9.0 mag. or larger as a result of Yellowstone's massive mantle plume expansion may be a higher risk in the near future, than a eventual volcanic eruption.

New pictures of Yellowstone's plume show the reservoir is about 80 kilometers long and 20 kilometers wide. "I don't know of any other magma body that's been imaged that's that big," says Robert Smith, a geophysicist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.

Researchers report the super-volcano underneath the state of Wyoming has been rising at a record rate since 2004. Its floor has gone up three inches per year for the last three years indicating the fastest rate since records began in 1923
 

yellowstone earthquake swarm 2013

Because concurrent swarms have never been detected in the past, the answers aren't in yet. Geophysicist Bob Smith says: "I have never witnessed two simultaneous earthquake swarms in my 53 years of monitoring seismic activity in and around the Yellowstone Caldera". Tremblers from the three quake swarms mostly hit in three areas: Lewis Lake, the Lower Geyser Basin and the northwest part of Norris Geyser Basin.

yellowstone caldera 2013

The largest earthquake shook the ground near Old Faithful Geyser on Sept. 15th, 2013.
The epicenter of the magnitude 3.6 quake, the largest in Yellowstone in about a year, was just 6 miles to the north of Old Faithful.

norris lake 2013

Norris Lake

A strong enough earthquake, like the one that occurred out at Hebgen Lake in 1959 measuring 7.3 to 7.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, caused nearly 300 features on the Yellowstone landscape to erupt, 160 of which had no previous record of geysers.

Update time = Tue Sep 24 4:33:09 MDT 2013
Small - but a lot of them:

 MAG    DATE    LOCAL-TIME  LAT     LON    DEPTH    LOCATION
        y/m/d     h:m:s     deg     deg     km
 2.8  2013/09/24 04:24:23 44.733N 110.783W  9.1   27 km (17 mi) ENE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.3  2013/09/23 06:41:33 44.864N 110.710W 17.9   19 km (12 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 1.8  2013/09/23 04:57:38 44.300N 111.001W 12.1   33 km (20 mi) NE  of  Warm River, ID
 0.9  2013/09/23 02:51:19 44.820N 110.747W  5.2   24 km (15 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 2.7  2013/09/23 02:32:50 44.232N 110.763W  5.1   46 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 2.0  2013/09/23 02:30:21 44.234N 110.760W  4.4   46 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 1.4  2013/09/23 02:29:48 44.223N 110.751W  2.3   47 km (29 mi) ENE of  Warm River, ID
 1.6  2013/09/21 22:37:26 44.748N 110.778W  9.0   28 km (17 mi) ENE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/21 00:58:58 44.759N 111.185W 12.3   12 km ( 8 mi) NNW of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/20 14:00:57 44.573N 110.817W  6.2   25 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 2.0  2013/09/19 23:57:37 44.724N 110.644W  5.5   35 km (22 mi) S   of  Gardiner, MT
 1.2  2013/09/19 06:00:35 44.944N 111.446W  3.5   38 km (24 mi) SSW of  Big Sky, MT
 1.6  2013/09/18 09:55:26 44.571N 110.828W  6.3   24 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.6  2013/09/18 09:54:51 44.558N 110.822W  6.0   25 km (16 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.1  2013/09/17 19:03:40 44.532N 111.091W 15.5   15 km ( 9 mi) S   of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.5  2013/09/17 16:39:49 44.021N 110.715W  1.4   37 km (23 mi) NE  of  Alta, WY
 0.8  2013/09/17 14:04:52 44.574N 110.811W  4.4   25 km (16 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 0.7  2013/09/17 13:58:49 44.590N 110.829W  5.6   23 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT
 1.7  2013/09/17 05:53:48 44.617N 110.815W  1.6   24 km (15 mi) ESE of  West Yellowstone, MT

Smith says he believes that at least two of the swarms are probably related to each other.

The three swarms hit in the following areas:  Lewis Lake, the Lower Geyser Basin and the northwest part of Norris Geyser Basin.

Earlier this month, on September 15, the largest earthquake to rock Yellowstone in over a year occurred about six miles north of  the Old Faithful Geyser.  Its magnitude was about 3.6 at its epicenter.   It takes a magnitude of about 3.0 for people to feel it, a Yellowstone representative named Al Nash told the Jackson Hole News & Guide.

The recent swarms of earthquakes began on September 10 and finished up on September 16.

The University of Utah put out a statement saying that altogether 130 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 3.6 occurred in the area, with most of them being located in the Lower Geyser Basin.  But, including many smaller events which were not detected, there were many more quakes than this.

The recent swarms produced four earthquakes which, although they were not large, were significant enough in size to be felt.

The first, which had a magnitude of 3.5, happened on September 13, about 17 miles northeast of West Yellowstone, Montana.  The next two tremblors to be felt occurred early on the morning of September 15 with magnitudes of 3.2 and 3.4 respectively.  These two occurred in rapid succession, with one being detected at 5:10 AM and the other at 5:11 AM.  The quakes happened about 15 miles southeast of West Yellowstone.  The largest earthquake recording during the swarm, a 3.6, was measured nearby about 4 1/2 hours later.

According to Nash, a strong enough earthquake, like the 7.3-7.5 quake that shook the Hebgen Lake area in 1959, has the potential to change the activity of the geysers in the area.  And, in fact the 1959 quake did.  It caused nearly 300 features to erupt, included 160 where there were no previous records of geysers.  None of the current earthquakes were powerful enough to create these types of changes, however.

Smith says he believes that the current swarms of earthquakes may, in fact, be related to the 1959 earthquake.  “We think that much of the seismicity is still aftershocks from that event in 1959. It can go on for hundreds of years.”

Usually only about half a dozen earthquakes occur each year in Yellowstone, Smith noted, so it is quite unusual for this level of swarm activity to rock the park.

Written by:  Nancy Schimelpfening

Missoulian

KOMO News

Jackson Hole News & Guide

 

 

 

A 10,000 YEAR OLD GLACIER SUDDENLY MELTED - WHY?
6-30-10

The most recent swarm started after the January 2010 Haiti earthquake.
With 1620 small earthquakes between January 17, 2010 and February 1, 2010,
this swarm was the second largest ever recorded in the Yellowstone Caldera.
The largest of these shocks was a magnitude 3.8 on January 21, 2010
 at 11:16 PM MST.[15][18]
This swarm reached the background levels by 21st of February. 2010
2009 -over 500
Earthquakes at Yellowstone in the last week
18 earthquakes on January 2, 2009
12 earthquakes on January 1, 2009
58 earthquakes on December 31, 2008
23 Earthquakes on December 30, 2008
38 Earthquakes on December 29, 2008

103 Earthquakes on December 28, 2008

swarn map 2009



 

Posted by geologist Christopher C. Sanders on January 1, 2009.

"I am advising all State officials around Yellowstone National Park for a potential State of Emergency.  In the last week over 252 earthquakes have been observed by the USGS.  We have a 3D view on the movement of magma rising underground.  We have all of the pre warning signs of a major eruption from a super volcano.  - I want everyone to leave Yellowstone National Park and for 200 miles around the volcano caldera."

NEW YELLOWSTONE WEBCAM

RECENT QUAKES IN YELLOWSTONE

YELLOWSTONE CALDERA GROWING AGAIN

COSMIC DUST CLOUD - INCOMING
updated as reports come in 

THIS MAY BE IT!!!

YOU'VE BEEN WARNED BEFORE!!!!

ESA satellite reveals Yellowstone's deep secret

Satellite images acquired by ESA's ERS-2 revealed the recently discovered changes in Yellowstone's caldera are the result of molten rock movement 15 kilometres below the Earth's surface, according to a recent study published in Nature.

Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, InSAR for short, Charles Wicks, Wayne Thatcher and other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists mapped the changes in the northern rim of the caldera, or crater, and discovered it had risen about 13 centimetres from 1997 to 2003.

InSAR, a sophisticated version of 'spot the difference', involves mathematically combining different radar images, acquired from as near as possible to the same point in space at different times, to create digital elevation models and reveal otherwise undetectable changes occurring between image acquisitions.

"We know now how mobile and restless the Yellowstone caldera actually is. Ground-based measurements can be more efficiently deployed because of our work," Thatcher said. "The research could not have been done without satellite radar data."

NOTE: THE VIDEOS BELOW ARE FICTIONAL- BASED ON FACTS

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART I

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART II

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART III

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART IV

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO  - PART V

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART VI

PART II OF THE FILM

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART I

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART II

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART III

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART IV

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART V

YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO - VIDEO - PART VI

 

http://www.seis.utah.edu/helicorder/heli/yellowstone/

 

 

YELLOWSTONE CLOSED BY FLOODS AND MUDSLIDES

BBC FILMING DOCUMENTARY ON JUNE 22, 2004

EDITORS NOTE: On 7-31-05, I watched a film on the Discovery Channel with Tom Brokaw, most of which was fiction based on a future scenario but, based on real science of Yellowstone history, and using real films from Mt. St. Helens' (1980), Phillipines - Mt. Pinatubo (1991), Hawaii, and Central America.  The film was very well done with real science interspersed into the fictionalized future scenario. 
     The scenario was based on the real 2003 heat up of the Norris Geyser at Yellowstone and the fact that it has been shown that the land is raising over time.  Norris Basin itself has raised 5 inches, and the entire Caldera has raised 35 inches since 1923.
     It is also known that one end of Yellowstone Lake is 100 feet higher than it used to be and flooding the land at the other end and killing the trees.  Trees in various parts of the park are dying because their roots are cooking from the heat under the ground.  Bison have died from gas coming out of the holes in the ground.  
      Water is now boiling along the trails. Some people have fallen into this water and been severely injured. Some paths are now closed.

      In the film, they told people that there might be an imminent small eruption and they should prepare for 3 days of being home, and then evacuated all the people from 100 miles around the caldera.
      In reality, if there is an eruption, larger than Mt. St. Helens, we would need at least a year's worth of supplies because no food could be grown, farm lands would be useless, temperatures would drop by as much as 15 degrees. Within 3 months, the entire world would be covered by clouds.
      Millions of people would die - most within the surrounding 100 miles - fewer people would die from inhalation of ash as it spreads mostly east and south from the caldera in widening circles around the area. 600 miles from the caldera is not safe at all. 
      FEMA could not handle this big an event. The U.S. economy would come to a halt.  Grocery stores would empty out, airlines, trains, buses, and roads would stop. 
      Though at the end of the film, during the last half hour, Tom Brokaw and workers at Yellowstone Park tried to make it seem like nothing is going to happen, it is already known that the scientists who are monitoring what is going on at Yellowstone is being withheld from the public.
      The real truth is,
WILL NOT BE TOLD HOW BIG OR HOW BAD AN ERUPTION CAN BE, and the last word by the Yellowstone worker was, "Come and visit Yellowstone and see how it really is."
       This is probably a good idea - people 'should' go see what is going on.  Don't just go there and see how pretty all the steam and water is that is shooting up out of the ground. Find out the real science of the area and how it is changing.  


Yellowstone - Mystery, Intrigue & Planted Sensors

508  EARTHQUAKE SWARM IN APRIL, 2004

LATEST NEWS

YELLOWSTONE EXPLOSION COMPARISONS

Its worse than we are being told

Excerpt from: http://www.syzygyjob.net/dreams/messages/39393.shtml

Then Menno asks if we will be struck soon by that meteor an angel had told him 
about years ago. This angel said no, not that one. Then, I saw a meteor hit the 
earth and the angel said, it will strike in the ocean near Yukatuk, Alaska. It will 
cause a tidal wave all up and down the west coast. It will trigger the volcano in 
Yellowstone. Then I saw the volcano with dark, gray, billowing smoke rising up 
out of it. Menno asks me if I was sure it was Yellowstone. I asked him if he ever 
saw Yellowstone's volcano. He said yes.

I said okay, this is what I am seeing. I see a volcano, that is not as high as say 
Mount Rainer, Mount Baker. It kind of slopes to a peak and it has no snow on it, 
it is all brown. Menno said, well that's what it looks like alright. So, he asks if it 
will blow right away and the angel said No, but within 3 -3 1/2months after it starts 
billowing this smoke. Then Menno asks, if we had understanding right about Rev.18, 
that Babylon is US (New York City). The angel said partly right. He said, when 
New York gets destroyed, it will escalate things in Iraq and Babylon there will also 
be destroyed. Then, world events will start to unfold.

David Booth - proven psychic- had a vision in March of 2003.  He saw himself in space,
looking down on the earth. He saw a dark, planetary object coming from the south end
of earth - out of the southern Hemisphere.  As this planetary object came past earth,
the size of which would fit between the earth and the moon - he saw the western end of
the U.S. blow up with fire and blasts of smoke and ash.  From there, the whole earth
rippled.  Yellowstone had blown up.

Gordon Michael Scallion (psychic)- on March 16, 2003 - had a vision that two lightbeings
showed him that Wyoming and Utah were glowing red.  The lightbeings said, "This will
change the world in 18 months."  (18 months from March 16, 2003 = September, 2004)

From: jmccanneyscience.com

March 23, 2004 7PM CST special emergency update ... word just came in from a private 
contact that there will be a major news announcement tonight regarding Yellowstone 
National Park ... to be released by one of the major networks ... initial UNCONFIRMED 
reports indicate that the volcanic bubble under Yellowstone's basin has raised over 100 
feet in the past day and there are indications it is ready to blow ... i repeat these are 
UNCONFIRMED reports that have come to me through what i consider reliable sources 
and therefore am posting so you can watch for the official announcement ... if this is true 
then it is clear this has been known about for some time and the USGS page is as we have 
said a total misinformation site about the seriousness of Yellowstone and the evacuation 
preparations that should have been underway LONG ago  ... jim mccanney 

David Booth and Wayne Green were kicked off of the Coasttocoastam.com show on 
3-18-04 for not revealing what the Nun (Sister Lucy) who gave the Fatima prophecies had 
said to him in a private meeting.  David DID say that it was said, "The New Star will soon 
shine." which refers to Wormwood and the book of Revelation: 

CHERNOBYL IS UKRAINIAN FOR WORMWOOD

I will will mention the aquatic dog. Canis Major and Minor are the "dog" 
constellations, and Sirius is the Dog Star. In the Greek myths, these are the 
dogs that accompany the Hunter, Orion. Sirius and Orion in the Egyptian 
system are, of course, Isis and Osiris who produce Horus; i.e. a Trinity. 
I have theorized that the following Nostadamus quatrain, C2, Q41, is related:

The great star will burn for seven days,
The cloud will make the sun appear double:
The large mastiff will howl all night
When the great pontiff changes his abode.

The "large mastiff" in the theory is Canis Major/Sirius/Isis, which corresponds 
to the Woman With Child in Revelation 12. This is speaking of dreams, visions, 
inspirations, etc., the communication from the collective unconscious at the end 
of the cycle. Signposts/ guideposts are left for us in the waking state "on land" 
by way of coincidences and synchronicities.

But, to notice them, we need to stay awake.

Howling all day and night, I remain, your spiritual brother,

Joe Mason
Hunter, assisted by two aquatic dogs

NOTE: Comets are frequently responsible for causing weather anomalies like El Nino and
earthquakes and volcanoes to explode.
Several comets are coming this year, and will be 
seen by the naked eye beginning in May. By September, Venus (the morning Daybreak star) 
crosses the face of the sun.  These are the two suns.

December 17, 2003 - DREAM (implanted in my head after I heard a bell ring in my ear:

There were 2 puzzles on the floor  -one with small pieces and 1 with large pieces. These had 
to be put together before we could leave.

So, I did the large pieced puzzle. It was of the United States. The right half of the U.S. was 
divided from the left half, at the Mississippi River.

So, I pulled the right half over to the left half and stuck them together. Missouri was a large 
Teddy Bear
. Wyoming had a train locomotive with smoke coming out of its stack and was 
lower than the other pieces like there was a layer missing.   (Wyoming is where Yellowstone is) 
See: http://www.earthmountainview.com/yellowstone/yellowstone.htm

I finished up my part of the cleaning and left to go home. On the way, it was like I was flying 
over the roadway and all the traffic was going East and people were in a panic and passing 
each other in their hurry. I saw two cars crash and roll end over end. I stopped to access the
 crash and damage and I watched, along with other people as the car repaired itself into a 
picture like a house until it looked better than brand new. It was amazing to watch.

Prophetic Vision of Yellowstone Volcano

March 16, 2007
Diane M.

To Holly Deyo:

I have been told to share this with you by spirit. Your work has been so meaningful to
 
me I hope this is useful for you and Stan.

I had a prophetic vision come to me the middle of February. Since then, I have had more
parts of the vision filled in on almost a daily basis. My vision was significant volcanic
activity in Yellowstone National Park, on March 17 2007.  Although it is shown to me
as a large eruption, it does not devastate mankind. The eruption is bigger than Mount
Saint Helens. Even though all of the signs are there, the eruption catches people
off guard.

The Eastern Part of the United States is effected from the ash, and there is some
civil unrest, but not too much because people cannot be out in the ash. Most of the
civil unrest is surrounded with people trying to get supplies.

Colorado is somewhat affected, but not devastated. California escapes most of the
effect. Although, there is some crop failure, most citizens of the United States will
continue to have access to sufficient food.

However, the world will feel the effects, since the United States will not be able to export
any significant quantities of food. The parts of the world that are already suffering from
food shortages will get worse. This event will start the beginning of a period of food
shortages.

In the vision I was shown that although several catastrophic events have already
happened, this event is to serve as a wake up call, so that people can prepare for the
even rougher road ahead.

 

See:  http://www.whatdoesitmean.com
See: James McCanney and the Comets
See:  Earthquake predictions for the month
See:  http://www.drsky.com/    Asteroid Toutatis arriving in September
What else is coming? -  two comets
See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/lostland/pole2.htm
See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/1950DA.htm
See: http://www.greatdreams.com/1998ox4.htm

See:  http://www.greatdreams.com/disaster-dreams.htm
See:  Venus transition - June 8, 2004
See: Wormwood in the Bible Code

SEE:  QUAKE WATCHLIST AND INFORMATION

See:  Bible Code 1  -  Bible Code 2  - Bible Code 3  - Bible Code 4
Bible Code Analysis pages
These Bible Codes and Analysis were done by Tom Gaston and Chris Van Houten

THE BIBLE CODE PREDICTS THAT YELLOWSTONE WILL BLOW MARCH 31 OR APRIL 1, 2004

[Editors note:  There were multiple quakes this week ]

April 2004 Yellowstone Seismicity Summary

During April 2004, 508 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region. The largest shock to occur during this period was a magnitude 2.7 earthquake on April 17 at 1:22 AM MST, located about 8.8 miles northwest of Madison Junction, Wyoming.

A notable swarm of small earthquakes occurred April 12-23. These were located on the northwest side of Yellowstone National Park and northwest of the Yellowstone caldera. The events were generally small and none were reported felt. The swarm included 465 earthquakes. Magnitudes ranged from -1.2 to 2.7, with 8 events greater than 2.0 magnitude. .

Magnitude 4.0

Date-Time Wednesday, April 7, 2004 at 15:54:12 (UTC) = Coordinated Universal Time

Wednesday, April 7, 2004 at 9:54:12 AM = local time at epicenter

Location 43.605°N, 110.409°W
Depth 5 km (3.1 miles) set by location program Region WYOMING
Distances 32 km (20 miles) ENE (63°) from Jackson, WY
34 km (21 miles) E (86°) from Teton Village, WY
36 km (22 miles) ENE (58°) from Rafter J Ranch, WY
340 km (211 miles) NNE (21°) from Salt Lake City, UT

Location Uncertainty horizontal +/- 4.7 km (2.9 miles); depth fixed by location program
Parameters Nst= 25, Nph= 25, Dmin=17.8 km, Rmss=0.74 sec, Gp= 83°,
M-type=local magnitude (ML), Version=Q
Source USGS NEIC (WDCS-D)
Event ID usgzba

Update time = Thu Apr 8 8:00:02 MDT 2004

MAG DATE LOCAL-TIME LAT LON DEPTH LOCATION

0.9 2004/04/07 08:31:54 44.779N 110.826W 5.2 11 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY
0.2 2004/04/07 02:49:10 44.709N 111.044W 8.7 7 km ( 4 mi) NE of W. Yellowstone, MT
1.2 2004/04/05 20:19:18 44.364N 111.008W 6.7 18 km (11 mi) SW of Old Faithful, WY
1.3 2004/04/05 15:03:06 44.649N 110.435W 0.2 10 km ( 7 mi) NNW of Fishing Bridge, WY
0.7 2004/04/05 11:42:35 44.771N 110.831W 4.3 12 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY
0.6 2004/04/05 04:01:05 44.348N 110.553W 3.0 8 km ( 5 mi) SSE of West Thumb, WY
0.1 2004/04/04 06:46:30 44.861N 110.815W 7.3 16 km (10 mi) SW of
 Mammoth, WY
1.2 2004/04/04 06:22:44 44.711N 110.659W 6.8 4 km ( 2 mi) SE of Norris Junc., WY
0.8 2004/04/04 03:22:14 44.720N 110.664W 2.6 3 km ( 2 mi) ESE of Norris Junc., WY
0.3 2004/04/03 01:41:38 44.773N 110.834W 1.6 12 km ( 7 mi) WNW of Norris Junc., WY
0.3 2004/04/02 17:24:17 44.783N 110.944W 4.6 17 km (10 mi) NNW of Madison Junc., WY
0.2 2004/04/02 12:27:42 44.788N 110.947W 5.6 17 km (11 mi) NNW of Madison Junc., WY
1.1 2004/04/01 23:02:27 44.775N 111.082W 9.7 13 km ( 8 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT
0.6 2004/04/01 21:40:59 44.774N 111.084W 9.0 12 km ( 8 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT
1.3 2004/04/01 21:02:25 44.770N 111.086W 8.9 12 km ( 7 mi) N of W. Yellowstone, MT

There are 15 quakes on this map.
I cropped the official map so the reader
could see the quakes full size. See http://www.seis.utah.edu/recenteqs/Maps/111-45.html

4-14-01 - I had this dream at exactly 2:00 a.m. 

DREAM - I was with a woman and her small children, her extended family and a bunch of other people in hilly county.  Off to the northwest from where we stood was a mountain or extremely high hill. It seemed to be several miles away. It was a lovely summer day, the sun was shining, and people were strolling around enjoying the weather. The mountain didn't have any snow on top, so it had to have been high summer.

All of a sudden, a spout of hot water came up out of the side of the mountain, similar to Old Faithful. But it shot up so high and so far that it sprayed hot water all the way over to where we were, several miles away. 

We were all rather shocked, and started to talk about it. And while we discussed this event, it happened again, only stronger this time, only it didn't stop, the water started spraying higher and higher and all of a sudden, the whole mountain let loose, water, steam, smoke, dirt, rocks, (like mount St. Helen's) except it just kept getting bigger and bigger. We knew that what went up had to come down, and there didn't seem to be any place to hide. 

It seemed stupid to run into a wooden building, but that's all I could think of. We ran down a winding path to a wooden building like a garage, between some fruit trees or whatever those trees were. The grandfather was carrying one of the little kids, the woman carried one of the toddlers, and a couple other kids around age 5 or 6 ran alongside. I hurried them along the path, which was actually more or less back towards the mountain that was exploding. Somehow, miraculously, the path we took was still dry, and we ran fast enough that we made it into the garage before the deluge of hot water, dust, ash, and rocks came back down.  

I doubt that the other people made it out alive, because there was no where else to run. The whole mountain had disintegrated in explosion after explosion.

NOTE: I hope I never see a disaster like that again. It was horrendous.  (The clock now says 2:22) 

MORE: I went to lay down to meditate on 'when' this was going to occur. Instead, I saw a white radio. On the front of the radio where the station would be listed, it said, "Microfront', and underneath that it said, "Volcanic Center" and then the word 'underground' came to me.

 

From: MCYoung/Tx,

Subject: Another Yellowstone Dream/Vision

Friday October 10,2003 4:44am(cdt)

I was in a very large underground military or research facility though not sure where. It was a huge open room with several hundred people working or standing in small groups discussing what appeared to be computer print-outs and maps.

I saw rows of computers with men and women sitting in front of them. I saw seismic drums along one wall(about 100 of them)all in a row. Next to each of these were metal bins of some sort and they were catching computer print-outs from these drums?

Have never seen metal bins like these next to seismic drums. Several people were retrieving the print-outs from the bins and then didcussing them.

The most prominent feature in this open area was a huge screen upon one wall displaying a map of the US, Canada, and Mexico.

All the states were outlined and labled, including Canada and Mexico. There was a large Red circle(shaded in)covering Yellowstone Park and some of its surrounding areas.

Beyond this there was a very large irregular area of the US and Canada and a tiny part of Mexico shaded in Orange. All of WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, CO, NM, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, MN, WI, IA, MO, IL, LA, AR were covered in Orange.

Northern California, most of NV, UT and, TX were also shaded in Orange. The areas of Canada which border on the US were also shaded Orange with the largest area being to the north and east of MN. Southwestern BC and Vancouver Island were shaded in Orange and a small area of Mexico just below NM and the Big Bend of TX.

There were shaded areas extending over the Pacific from the Queen Charlotte Islands down to San Francisco. Only the the norteastern part of AZ was shaded. The western areas of IN, TN, and MS were also shaded in Orange.

There were other smaller screens on each side of the huge one. These screens showed the same map of US, Canada, Mexico but appeared to be some kind of weather tracking maps. They showed weather radar, wind directions, the jet streams,satellite images, aviation info and the like.

Now I have no clue what exactly was occurring but there was clearly a situation and the people in the room were looking very intense, worried and they were all very busy, not one slacker in the room.

From the looks of it, Yellowstone seemed to be at the center of all this activity as it was circled in bright Red on the huge map. I do not know what the Orange shading was about.

This is all I recall. I was awakened by a loud electronic sound in my ear and I sat up looked at my clock which read 4:44am(again!).

I've been reading my journals and believe this is added information related to yesterday morning's dream which I posted below, and also the dream of October 3rd which I also posted.

I wasn't able to get back yesterday due to the weather so will catch up as much as possible now before the next round of storms rolls in.

Something's happening and it's not making the news??? Appears that way to me.

peace

mc

FROM: http://www.syzygyjob.net/dreams/messages/23742.shtml

March 21, 2004

Hello Dee,

 
I found your great dreams website a few days ago while researching visions & prophetic dreams.  I first became clairaudient in 1992 and have experienced visions and prophetic dreams since that time.  My oldest child is an intuitive tarot reader. My second child can see &  read auras. My third child appears to be gifted with precognition, & my youngest child has begun experiencing prophetic dreams and visions during the past few months.
 
After reading about the Yellowstone volcano, I thought it important to email you, and share a couple of clairaudient messages I had received...one from 2 years ago, and one just last week.  Also, I wanted to share a prophetic dream my youngest child shared with me on March 17, 2004.  About 2 years ago, while casually surfing on the internet, I received the following clairaudient message: "The sleeping giant is starting to wake up."  Naturally, I immediately tried to research what "the sleeping giant" was.  I concluded it had to be a volcano, but I had no idea which one.  I finally wound up emailing a volcanologist to ask which volcano was known as the "sleeping giant."  He couldn't help me as he said all dormant volcanoes were considered to be sleeping.  I was stumped. I tried to research the "sleeping giant" some more but couldn't find anything, and I eventually gave up.....until I read about what is happening at Yellowstone. 
 
Last week I received a message to purchase 24 candles. It didn't make sense to me. I thought maybe it was tied to "the 3 days of darkness." Then I dismissed that idea, because I figured 24 candles wouldn't be enough for a 72-hour period.  Then I did some more reading, & learned that the candles needed for the 3 day period are supposed to be blessed and made of beeswax.  Then I did some reading on beeswax candles, because I couldn't really understand the need for beeswax.  What I learned was that beeswax apparently burns cleaner & lasts longer because of it's purity.  I also learned  that one 8"  beeswax taper typically lasts about 3 hours. That means one could expect to use 8 candles in a 24 hour period....or 24 candles in a 72-hour period...3 days.
 
Since my child first began receiving prophetic dreams and visions a few months ago, one of the difficulties being encountered is that there are never any dates or times being given for any of the events he has seen.  I suggested that perhaps it would be a good idea to ask to be shown a clock or calendar when the dream begins to perhaps pinpoint their occurrence.  In the dream, he looks out the window and it's a beautiful sunny day.  All of the snow is gone, and this strikes him as  being odd, since it's supposed to still be winter outside.  He decides to go look at the calendar hanging on the kitchen wall. He sees the calendar has changed. Instead of it being March...the month is July, but there is no year. In the bottom right corner are 2 months, one is July (which he thinks is odd since it is already on the month of July) and the other month is August. Another strange thing he observes is that although we have currently a 'Scottie dog" calendar, there is no Scottie dog for the month of July....just a scene with a lake.  Dates are highlighted in blue circles on the calendar for the month of July:  the dates are; July 3rd, July 14th, and July 24th. However, there are no dates highlighted for  the month of August.
 
In view of what is currently happening at Yellowstone, I felt perhaps the messages I had received, along with his prophetic dream might be of some significance.  If I should receive any additional messages, I would be happy to pass them on. Everything I have related about my son's dream is exactly as he told me.
 
If you  should wish to share this on your website, you have my permission.
 
Love & Light
 
Lazarus

 

January 10, 2004 emergency posting (note the government pages were taken down shortly after I captured this information) ... this morning 90 miles from anchorage Alaska a 7.1 earth quake registered and there has been an unusual silence in the news media ... as it confirms my ongoing contention that many of these quakes are due to solar flaring as was the case with the Alaska quake ... however the pressing issue remains with the Yellowstone volcano situation which is in a geological cycle to erupt again ... scroll down to listen to my January 8, 2004 radio show archive for details ... i have also noticed what appears to be continual influx of comets from the south with the SOHO data being altered or outright deleted almost daily now ... jim mccanney

C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) is ~14.5 mg very slowly brightening, but it may be a bright comet by 2004. Perihelion will be on May 15, 2004. The comet is in Phynix, very low in the South and practically unobservable in all of 2003.
C/2002 Q4 - where to see

January 2004 Yellowstone Seismicity Summary

During January 2004, 71 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region. The largest shock to occur during this period was a magnitude 2.7 earthquake on January 17 at 12:29 AM MST, located about 15.7 miles south southeast of Old Faithful, Wyoming.

Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at background levels.


MORE QUAKES IN WYOMING

1-21-04 MINOR earthquake rattles sleepy Wyoming

Washington - An earthquake with a magnitude of 4.7 rattled Jackson, Wyoming,
early on Wednesday, according to a report from the United States Geological Survey ...

New 'Third' Earthquake Hits Near Yellowstone Super-Volcano...02/20/04

Just two hours ago, a new 3.2 mag. earthquake has hit right next to Yellowstone Super-Volcano.
It is reported to have occurred 25 miles east/northeast of Jackson, WY.

http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/bulletin/neic_fdad.html

1) 5.3 mag. Feb. 6th (Newcastle)
The missing earthquake
2) 3.5 mag. Feb 15th (Douglas)
3) 3.2 mag. Feb 21st (Jackson)

WY Earthquake Serves as Wake Up Call KSL-TV

An earthquake shook northwestern Wyoming early this morning. It registered a 5 on the Richter scale.

EARTHQUAKES rattle Jackson ... near Newcastle reported an earthquake that registered 2.1 on the Richter scale just before 8 pm
Earthquakes are much more unusual in northeastern Wyoming ...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

2004/01/07 09:54:38 43.61N 110.36W 5.0 2.9 WYOMING
2004/01/07 09:34:03 43.58N 110.38W 5.0 3.2 WYOMING
2004/01/07 09:23:46 43.60N 110.35W 5.0 4.0 WYOMING
2004/01/07 08:44:21 43.61N 110.31W 5.0 4.1 WYOMING
2004/01/07 08:36:48 43.57N 110.43W 5.0 3.4 WYOMING
2004/01/07 08:27:01 43.57N 110.33W 5.0 3.7 WYOMING
2004/01/07 08:13:20 43.59N 110.42W 5.0 3.0 WYOMING
2004/01/07 07:51:37 43.58N 110.39W 5.0 5.0 WYOMING

YELLOWSTONE HEALTH PROBLEMS

Listen to On Site Report from Pam Schuffert

 mp3
From: http://www.themedianews.com/

Yellowstone is always shifting.
Last year, typical for the era when such measurements have been made, there were about 2,300 earthquakes in the park.


RUSSIAN QUAKES RELIEVE STRESSES AT YELLOWSTONE

JAPANESE QUAKES RELIEVE STRESSES AT YELLOWSTONE

10-6-03 - Yellowstone ground was 200 degrees

9-17-03 - People who have been at Yellowstone are saying that more and more areas are being
roped off, but the media isn't reporting this news.  The ground is getting hotter and hotter.

9-12-03 - WHAT'S NEW?  USGS SAYS 'NOTHING'!!!  YEAH RIGHT!!!!

9-10-03 -   3.3  
http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/neis/states/wyoming/last_event.html

9-7-03 - Numerous micro-quakes occurring

After a 4.4 quake on 8-21-03, 9 aftershocks have occurred along with a resonance in the rock,
which can cause softening of the rock. If a fissure occurs in the rock, everyone within 600 miles
should be prepared for the sudden blast. There may be no precursor quakes prior to a blast at
Yellowstone Supervolcano.  If it blows, there will be no life within 600 miles except those people
who have prepared a place underneath the  ground.  Even airplanes within the area could be
blown out of the sky according to Larry Park, an earthquake researcher who was interviewed
on the coasttocoastam.com George Noory show on 8-25-03. If the Supervolcano blows, it will
cause an immediate nuclear winter of dirt and ash in the air over the entire world for 2 years.
He also stated that there will be no crops grown in the midwest U.S. for that same period of time.

Larry Parks warns that people within that 600 miles should make preparations to survive the possible blast.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There is a bulge over 100 feet high in the bottom of Yellowstone Lake.  The area under the northern end of the lake near
Mary Bay say that the bulge could have been formed by carbon dioxide or steam. The water in the lake which normally
gets no warmer than 66 degrees has now reached 85 degrees.  The bulge, which is about 2,100 feet long, has been
formed only within the last few years.  "We're thinking this structure could be a precursor to a hydrothermal explosive
event, but we don't think this is a volcano," Lisa Morgan, geologist from USGS said.  A Mary Bay explosion
would likely cause a large crater, 1- foot waves, and a release or rocks and poisonous gas.  Mary Bay itself
is the world's largest hydrothermal explosion crater.  The USGS team hopes to prepare a damage assessment this fall.

Watch this map

Click for latest map

Seismograms at Yellowstone

From: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Yellowstone/OFR95-59/OFR95-59_inlined.html

Yellowstone is a great smoldering pit -a caldera 30 miles across, 45 miles long, and several thousand feet deep - the ground having fallen into the huge underground cavern that was left by the earth-shaking eruptions. Lava then began oozing from the cracks to fill the still smoking caldera.

Yellowstone has gone off roughly once every 600,000 years. Its last eruption was 640,000 years ago.
The next explosion is already overdue.

Typically, supervolcanoes are not mountains but depressions, huge collapsed craters called calderas, which are hard to detect.

The Yellowstone caldera is 70 kilometres long and 30 km wide.
Eight km beneath the Earth's surface lies a huge magma chamber, containing vast amounts of molten rock.

As pressure rises in the chamber, the surface is also rising and there is a measurable increase in heat.
But vulcanologists do not know when Yellowstone will blow.

A natural history of global disasters, portrays a possible Yellowstone explosion in 2074,
says there have been two such events every 100,000 years for the last two million years.

The areas where supervolcanoes are most likely to be found, he says, are subduction zones,
where the Earth's plates are dipping below one another.
The Pacific Rim and southeast Asia are especially vulnerable.

But there is a caldera in the Phlegraean Fields near Naples in southern Italy. Dr Ted Nield, of the Geological Society of London,
told BBC News Online: "It could do the same as Yellowstone, though on a smaller scale".

DREAM OF YELLOWSTONE

Friday October 10,2003 4:44am (cdt)

I was in a very large underground military or research facility though not sure where. It was a huge open room with several hundred people working or standing in small groups discussing what appeared to be computer print-outs and maps.

I saw rows of computers with men and women sitting in front of them. I saw seismic drums along one wall (about 100 of them) all in a row. Next to each of these were metal bins of some sort and they were catching computer print-outs from these drums?

Have never seen metal bins like these next to seismic drums. Several people were retrieving the print-outs from the bins and then discussing them.

The most prominent feature in this open area was a huge screen upon one wall displaying a map of the US, Canada, and Mexico.

All the states were outlined and labled, including Canada and Mexico. There was a large Red circle (shaded in) covering Yellowstone Park and some of its surrounding areas.

Beyond this there was a very large irregular area of the US and Canada and a tiny part of Mexico shaded in Orange. All of WA, OR, ID, MT, WY, CO, NM, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, MN, WI, IA, MO, IL, LA, AR were covered in Orange.

Northern California, most of NV, UT and,TX were also shaded in Orange. The areas of Canada which border on the US were also shaded Orange with the largest area being to the north and east of MN. Southwestern BC and Vancouver Island were shaded in Orange and a small area of Mexico just below NM and the Big Bend of TX.

There were shaded areas extending over the Pacific from the Queen Charlotte Islands down to San Francisco. Only the the 
northeastern part of AZ was shaded. The western areas of IN, TN, and MS were also shaded in Orange.

There were other smaller screens on each side of the huge one. These screens showed the same map of US, Canada, Mexico but appeared to be some kind of weather tracking maps. They showed weather radar, wind directions, the jet streams, satellite images, aviation info and the like.

Now I have no clue what exactly was occurring but there was clearly a situation and the people in the room were looking very intense, worried and they were all very busy, not one slacker in the room.

From the looks of it, Yellowstone seemed to be at the center of all this activity as it was circled in bright Red on the huge map. I do not know what the Orange shading was about.

This is all I recall. I was awakened by a loud electronic sound in my ear and I sat up looked at my clock which read 4:44am (again!).

I've been reading my journals and believe this is added information related to yesterday morning's dream which I posted below, and also the dream of October 3rd which I also posted.

I wasn't able to get back yesterday due to the weather so will catch up as much as possible now before the next round of storms rolls in.

Something's happening and it's not making the news??? Appears that way to me.

Comments welcome!

peace

mc

THE YELLOWSTONE WEBCAM

THE YELLOWSTONE CALDERA

The most recent caldera-forming eruption about 650,000 years ago produced a caldera 53 x 28 miles (85 x 45 kilometers) across in what is now Yellowstone National Park (Figure 2). During that eruption, ground-hugging flows of hot volcanic ash, pumice, and gases swept across an area of more than 3,000 square miles. When these enormous pyroclastic flows finally stopped, they solidified to form a layer of rock called the Lava Creek Tuff. Its volume was about 240 cubic miles (1,000 cubic kilometers), enough material to cover Wyoming with a layer 13 feet thick or the entire conterminous United States with a layer 5 inches thick. The Lava Creek Tuff has been exposed by erosion at Tuff Cliff, a popular Yellowstone attraction along the lower Gibbon River.

The eruption also shot a column of volcanic ash and gases high into Earth's stratosphere. This volcanic cloud circled the globe many times and affected Earth's climate by reducing the intensity of solar radiation reaching the lower atmosphere and surface. Fine volcanic ash that fell downwind from the eruption site blanketed much of North America. This ash layer is still preserved in deposits as far away as Iowa, where it is a few inches thick, and the Gulf of Mexico, where it is recognizable in drill cores from the sea floor.

Lava flows have since buried and obscured most of the caldera, but the underlying processes responsible for Yellowstone's 
tremendous volcanic eruptions are still at work. Eventually, another "bead" may be added to Yellowstone's 300-mile-long string of calderas, with global consequences that are beyond human experience and impossible to anticipate fully.

Courtesy of:
http://www.news.wisc.edu/newsphotos/images/volano_lg.jpg

NORRIS GEYSER BASIN

A temporary closure at Norris has been in effect since July 23, 2003. The closure is clearly marked and covers most of the western portion of the Back Basin trail starting at the Norris Museum. The foot trail itself is at boiling temperatures and the potential for a steam explosion is considered to be very high. While predictions can be made for volcanic explosions, steam explosions cannot be predicted. Steamboat and Echinus Geysers and all of Porcelain Basin remain open to the public

In July, 2003, Yellowstone Park rangers closed the entire Norris Geyser Basin because of deformation of the land and excessive high ground temperatures. There is an area that is 28 miles long by 7 miles wide that has bulged upward over five inches since 1996, and this year the ground temperature on that bulge has reached over 200 degrees (measured one inch below ground level).

There was no choice but to close off the entire area. Everything in this area is dying: The trees, flowers, grass and shrubs. A dead zone is developing and spreading outward. The animals are literally migrating out of the park.

Then during the last part of July one of the Park geologists discovered a huge bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake. The bulge has already risen over 100 feet from the bottom of the lake and the water temperature at the surface of the bulge has reached 88 degrees and is still rising.

Keep in mind that Yellowstone Lake is a high mountain lake with very cold water temperatures. The Lake is now closed to the public. It is filled with dead fish floating everywhere. The same is true of the Yellowstone river and most of the other streams in the Park. Dead and dying fish are filling the water everywhere.

Many of the picnic areas in the Park have been closed and people visiting the Park usually stay but a few hours before leaving since the stench of sulfur is so strong they literally can't stand the smell.

The irony of all this is the silence by the news media and our government. Very little information is available from Yellowstone personnel or publications. What mainstream newsstories do appear underscore the likelihood of a massive volcanic eruption. Though geologists publicly admit Yellowstone is “overdue,” they have been quoted as stating another massive magma release may not occur for 100,000 or 2 million years. Others close to the story are convinced that a massive eruption is imminent. A source that has demonstrated first-hand knowledge of the park's history and recent geothermal events stated the following: “The American people are not being told that the explosion of this 'super volcano' could happen at any moment. When Yellowstone does blow, some geologists predict that every living thing within six hundred miles is likely to die. The movement of magma has been detected just three-tenths of a mile below the bulging surface of the ground in Yellowstone raising concerns that this super volcano may erupt soon.”

~~~~~~~~

After 8 years, Yellowstone geyser erupts

Staff and agencies
15 June, 2006

Wed Jun 14, 9:12 AM ET

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. - A large geyser that hadn‘t erupted since 1998 surprised two hikers near the edge of Norris Geyser Basin with a roar and burst of steam.

The geyser erupted at full bore around 5 p.m. Saturday, sending a plume of steam about 100 feet high.

Watry, who works for the Yellowstone Association, said they were shocked at the show that unfolded about a quarter-mile away.

The eruption coincided with other unusual activity at Norris over the weekend, including the eruption of other sporadic geysers and changes in surface water. Henry Heasler, Yellowstone‘s lead geologist, said Norris appeared to be undergoing a "thermal disturbance" — an infrequent and often sudden shift in activity.

Such disturbances result from subsurface activity that brings water closer to the surface.

Among other changes, the usually quiet Vixen geyser has been erupting, Pearl geyser‘s water has changed from clear to opalescent, and water elsewhere in the basin has turned murky.

Scott Bryan, author of "The Geysers of Yellowstone," said Ledge was active in the early 1970s until a thermal disturbance in 1974. After that, eruptions were less frequent until 1979, when it quieted down completely.

© 2006 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.

 Norris News

BLUE GEYSER

Blue Geyser was called Iris Spring in 1886. Due to a misread map label, in 1904 the feature was inadvertently given its current name. It was observed to erupt to heights of over 60 feet from 1993 to 1996. It became almost dormant in 1997 and has remained very quiet ever since. Blue Geyser's last observed eruption was in February of 1997.

LEDGE GEYSER

Ledge is the second largest geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin, capable of shooting water 125 feet into the air. Because it erupts at an angle, however, the water will sometimes reach the ground 220 feet away. It has at times in the past erupted at regular intervals of 14 hours. The geyser became inactive between 1979 and late 1993. It erupted on a fairly regular cycle of every four to six days in 1994 and 1995.

WHIRLIGIG GEYSER

Little Whirligig got its name because of its close proximity to Whirligig Geyser. Whirligig was so named because while erupting its water swirls in its crater. The orange-yellow iron oxide deposits around Little Whirligig make it one of the most colorful features in Porcelain Basin. It has been dormant for several years.

BLACK GROWLER STEAM VENT

The hottest of Yellowstone's geothermal features are steam vents (fumaroles). Black Growler Steam Vent, on the hillside in front of you, has measured 199 to 280 degrees F (93 to 138 degrees C). A plentiful water supply would help cool these features; however, steam vents are usually found on hillsides or higher ground, above the basin's water supply. They rapidly boil away what little water they contain, releasing steam and other gases forcefully from 
underground.

STEAMBOAT GEYSER

The world's tallest active geyser, Steamboat can erupt to more than 300 feet (90m), showering viewers with its mineral-rich waters. For hours following its rare 3 to 40 minute major eruptions, Steamboat thunders with powerful jets of steam. As befitting such an awesome event, full eruptions are entirely unpredictable. In recent years, Steamboat has had three major eruptions. This photo is the May 2, 2000 eruption.

More commonly, Steamboat has minor eruptions and ejects water in frequent bursts of 10 to 40 feet.
 
 Feb. 27, 2007

Yellowstone Geyser Event Was A 'Burp'

BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) - Scientists have classified a spout of steam earlier this month at Steamboat geyser in Yellowstone National Park as a "forceful minor eruption" -- or, in other words, a "burp."

Unlike Old Faithful, the Steamboat geyser erupts irregularly. Its last major eruption was in 2005. After a quiet period, lasting from 1991 to May 2000, the geyser has had seven major eruptions in seven years.

On February 11th, park visitors and staff saw steam. On February 21st, they saw a plume of steam rise several hundred feet in the air, and observed a draining of nearby Cistern Spring, which often accompanies an eruption.

Major eruptions typically force thousands of gallons of water up through the geyser, which did not happen on either occasion in February.

PORKSHOP GEYSER

Dramatic behavioral changes have characterized Porkchop Geyser during the last decade. Once a small hot spring that occasionally erupted, Porkchop Geyser became a continuous spouter in the spring of 1985. The force of the spray caused a roar that could be heard at the museum over 660 yards (603m) away. On September 5, 1989, Porkchop Geyser exploded. Rocks surrounding the old vent were upended and some were thrown more than 216 feet (66m) from the feature. Porkchop Geyser is now a gently rolling hot spring.

MINUTE GEYSER

Minute Geyser's eruptions have changed dramatically. Its larger west vent is clogged with rocks tossed in by early visitors when the park's main road was near this trail and passed within 70 feet of the geyser. Minute once erupted every 60 seconds, sometimes to heights of 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 meters). Eruptions now are irregular and originate from its smaller east vent. Removal of the west vent's mineral-cemented rocks would require the use of heavy equipment resulting in severe damage.

ECHINUS GEYSER

Echinus (e-KI-nus) Geyser was a perennial crowd-pleaser which typically erupted every 35 to 75 minutes. Late in 1998 this geyser altered its interval and now erupts only a few times per day at best. Its pool fills gradually with water; then suddenly, bursts of steam and water explode 40 to 60 feet (12 to 18 m) skyward. Eruptions usually last about 4 minutes but in the past major eruptions have lasted as long as 118 minutes. The major eruptions were believed to be caused by a secondary water source which has mysteriously vanished. There has not been a major eruption in 3 years. In late 1998 Echinus' performance diminished and became erratic. As of mid-1999 its eruptions remain unpredictable.

Echinus is the largest acid-water geyser known. Its waters are almost as acidic as vinegar with a pH ranging from 3.3 to 3.6 . Acid geysers are extremely rare with the majority of the planet's total being found here at Norris Geyser Basin.

Hot Waters Yellowstone's hot springs and hydrothermal features (red) extend far beyond the famous areas accessible from the highways. Most of the hot spring areas and geyser basins are inside the ring fracture of the calderas (dashed black line). A second group are along a buried fault that extends from Mammoth Hot Springs south through Roaring Mountain and Norris Geyser basin, and through the caldera to the south. Inside the caldera, hot spring and geyser areas are concentrated where the late obsidian flows are not — the heat and hot water are presumably still there, but the obsidian seals them in. Includes both active and extinct hydrothermal systems.

Yellowstone Depths Reveal Rock Plume
By Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News

April 8, 2005 — A remarkable new view into the depths beneath  Yellowstone has revealed what may be a strange "beheaded plume" of hot rock  welling up from the Earth's mantle. 

The discovery not only sheds light on the cause of Yellowstone's amazing  geysers and gigantic prehistoric eruptions, but it's a preview of how the latest 3-D seismic tomographic imaging will very soon be revealing hidden structures in  the ground under the entire continental U.S., said Yellowstone researcher Bob  Smith of the University of Utah. 


Smith made the announcement last week in the keynote address for at the first national meeting of the Earthscope program. "I call this the ancestral Earthscope experiment," said Smith of the extensive Yellowstone seismic and Global Positioning System (GPS) network. Using Yellowstone's unusually dense network of seismic stations in and around the national park, Smith and other researchers of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory have been able to gather data of how seismic waves from earthquakes move through the ground there to create a three-dimensional image of the structures deep under Yellowstone. 

What they have found is a giant column, where seismic waves are slowed by  extra hot and partially melted rocks, which extends down 410 miles and then stops. The column is tilted to the northwest at depth, another strange feature, Smith said. 

Among the possible explanations for the tilted column of hot rock is that it is a plume of material that started way down at the edge  of the Earth's core, buoyed upwards and then got caught up in the conveyer-belt-like flow in the Earth's mantle (the region beneath the crust). 

As the plume got stretched to the east by the easterly mantle flow, it was stretched so thin that it broke apart, was "beheaded," Smith explained.  What is seen under Yellowstone, extending down to 410 miles, is just the head of the plume, with rest of it detached and still down in the mantle somewhere to  the west or northwest. 


"This is what really drives the Yellowstone system today," said Smith of the much smaller, but still huge, magma body that lies directly atop the plume and  directly under Yellowstone's geysers. 

More such 3-D views into the interior of North America can be expected in a  few years as Earthscope's USArray program marches a 44-mile grid of 400 seismographs west to east over the contiguous U.S. states and Alaska in the next five years, said Smith. The  US Array has already scores of seismographs in place in California. 


"Unlike the 40 years Smith has had to collect data, Earthscope reports all the data for everybody without waiting for years and years," said Kaye Shedlock,  of Earthscope. "At the end of five years we'll have a marvelous new set of data," agreed Smith. 

Other aspects of Earthscope include a continental network of GPS stations to watch in real time as the continent changes shape, called the Plate Boundary Observatory, and an experiment that is drilling directly into the San Andreas Fault in California. 
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20050404/yellowstone_print.html

"When it's  not horses, and you're still hearing hoof beats, then think zebras"

When the volcano in Yellowstone National Park blew 6,400 centuries ago, it obliterated a mountain range, felled herds of prehistoric camels hundreds of miles away and left a smoking hole in the ground the size of the Los Angeles Basin.

Rangers tell people to keep their distance from bison and steaming geysers. But there are no signs, aside from nature's own bubbling  mud pots and geysers, that visitors are wandering through the caldera of one of the largest active volcanoes in the world.

"This is a geologic park, and not many know it," said Robert Smith, a geophysicist at the University of Utah who has spent his career piecing together the story of the Yellowstone volcano. "It's not a bison park. Not an elk park. It's a geologic park."

New sensors have allowed researchers to confirm a suspicion that Smith has held for a long time: that the ancient volcano scientists dub "the beast" is a living force. The instruments record a continuing pattern of heaving and bulging and act as an early warning system.

Installed without fanfare and hidden from view, the sensitive devices are an acknowledgment that the past could be prologue, that this seemingly serene plateau could blow so hard it would make the 1980 Mount St. Helens explosion look like a sneeze.

Stepped-Up Monitoring

This summer, Yellowstone was added to the nation's handful of official volcano observatories. The others, smaller but far better known, are in Hawaii, Alaska, the Cascades, and California's Long Valley.

The Yellowstone observatory consists of a string of 28 electronic detection stations scattered through the park. Related plans call  for at least 100 more monitoring sites.

For Smith, who argued for years that the volcano deserved more attention than it was getting, the observatory is sweet vindication.  The beast is finally getting its due.

What took so long for science to put its ear to the ground, given the fact that geophysicists have known for 30 years that Yellowstone was a major volcanic system?

For one thing, Smith said, they couldn't decide whether the Yellowstone system was still active or in its death throes. For another, it doesn't look like a volcano.

It's just too big. From a viewpoint on the north rim of the caldera, a few miles from the Yellowstone River's Upper and Lower Falls, the southern edge of the caldera is obscured. It's more than 30 miles (50 kilometers) away—well within the massive park, but lost in the haze.

The last huge eruption was 640,000 years ago. Since then, a series of smaller ones have filled in the caldera "like tubes of toothpaste squeezing out all over the place," Smith said. The 3,000-foot-thick (one kilometer-thick) glaciers of the last Ice Age erased edges of the caldera, which is now a broad, undulating plateau rimmed by mountains.

The Earth has always shaken periodically around Yellowstone. But without the proper monitoring equipment in place, no one knew how often it happened or why. Smith, who has been investigating here for more than 30 years, set up seismometers and found earthquakes by the hundreds.

The Basin and Range country that extends from California to Montana is one of the most seismically active regions east of 
California's San Andreas Fault. It is being stretched apart as tectonic plates beneath it move.

But the earthquakes Smith started tracking three decades ago—15,000 between 1973 and 1998, often in swarms—didn't altogether  fit conventional notions of seismicity. There were quakes where you would expect them to occur, along north/south fault lines perpendicular to the stretching. But there were also some along parallel fault lines—activity that seemed to have no relation to the stretching.

Smith started thinking about the quakes in combination with Yellowstone's famously unstable plumbing. Was it possible that both the quakes and the geysers were products of volcanic action, of underground magma flows?

Hot Spot

Atop a volcano, mountains are pushed up by swelling magma; the subsequent explosion then destroys them and engulfs their remains.

In 1965 a team led by Robert Christiansen of the U.S. Geological Survey mapped the massive caldera and various lava flows in detail while NASA tried out a new remote-sensing technology in the region.

"It was not a surprise it was a young volcano," Christiansen recalled. "It was a surprise it was as young as it is."

He turned to Smith, whose seismic data would reveal whether the volcano was still rumbling. Together, the two men were able to see the system for what it was: a very active and large volcano that had sculpted much of the Northwest.

Smith and Christiansen saw evidence that a huge plume of magma rose from deep within the Earth and bore through the continental plate. As the plate moved southwest, the "hot spot" left a series of what Smith terms "ancient Yellowstones" across a 500-mile (800-kilometer) swath of southern Idaho from Oregon to Montana.

The hot-spot theory was dismissed when it was introduced by Smith in 1973. Accepted wisdom said volcanoes were found at the edges of tectonic plates and that hot spots occur mainly on the seafloor. "It took people a while to catch on," Smith said.

The evidence, ultimately, was incontrovertible.

There was the blasted topography, the layers of lava flows, the misaligned earthquake faults and Yellowstone's superheated, effervescent plumbing. Only one force was big enough to account for it all: a massive volcano. What Smith still didn't know was whether it was asleep.

In the mid-1970s, while surveying an old benchmark put into place when the first roads were cut through Yellowstone in 1923, Smith found that the ground had risen three feet (one meter) in five decades.

There could be only one explanation. The volcano was bulging upward. Smith and his students spent two years confirming the observation. By 1979, when he published the findings in the journal Science, even skeptics were becoming convinced that Yellowstone was an active volcano.

The caldera rose an inch a year until 1985. Then a swarm of earthquakes occurred nearby. By 1987 measurements showed that the caldera was falling an inch (2.5 centimeters) a year. In 1995 it started rising again. The caldera is now bulging again, toward the southwest.

Confirmation that the volcano was active was one of the most important factors in getting a new observatory established here. The movement of the volcano also suggests a controversial new idea forcing many geologists to rethink the very definition of hot spots and how they work.

Will It Blow Again?

Until Smith came along, most scientists believed that hot spots originate 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) down, at the boundary between the Earth's core and mantle. The newly revealed geology of Yellowstone suggests that this hot spot might be very shallow, born of the vagaries of heat and changing pressures or some other process yet unknown.

As far as it goes, the scientists work has yet to answer the most important question of all: Will the volcano blow its top again?

New studies by a research team at the University of Wisconsin that analyzed tiny crystals within hardened lava suggest a "dying, but still potent, cycle of volcanism."

Some people believe that the hot spot is moving under the Rocky Mountains, a much thicker and colder part of the continent, and that it will be effectively capped. Others contend that the cap won't stop the fury of the hot spot.

Smith and Christiansen can't say for sure, but they know the volcano is not dead. There is no reason, they say, it won't blow again.

Christiansen doubts the likelihood of another cataclysmic eruption any time soon, but he doesn't rule out something smaller. Earthquakes, rock slides, and steam explosions from geyser basins are all possible. A blowout on the scale of Mount St. Helens is conceivable, he said, adding: "We need to be prepared."

Copyright 2001 Ogden Publishing Corporation (for StandardNet)

THE VOLCANOS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

1-13-99 - DREAM - I was taken to a huge garage type area where certain people were being gathered to be witnesses or sacrificed people to both handle the devastation or stave off the suffering for the 7 volcanoes that are going to blow up all at the same time.

DREAM OF SACRIFICE FOR HUMANITY

Date: 01/13/1999

This portent is for 7 mountains linked together to all blow up at the same time.

There had been 14 scheduled to be linked to blow up all at once, but the Gods/spirits managed to get it down to seven so mankind didn't have to suffer quite as much.

Not all of the witnesses and sacrificial people who were going to clean up from the death and destruction had shown up yet.

Here is the whole dream:

DREAM OF SACRIFICE FOR HUMANITY

by Dee Finney

1-13-99

I was taken to a huge garage-like area where certain people were being gathered together to be witnesses and or sacrificial people to either handle the devastation or stave off the suffering for mankind when the seven volcanoes that were linked together that were going to blow up all at the same time.

There had been 14 scheduled to be linked to blow up all at once, but the Gods/spirits managed to get it down to seven so mankind didn't have to suffer quite as much.

Not all of the witnesses and sacrificial people who were going to clean up from the death and destruction had shown up yet.

The garage where the ceremonies were going to be held was a mess. Some construction was still going on in one area. These men who were building some kind of machinery were making a worse mess. One guy was cutting wood and the sawdust would have been pretty easy to clean up, but he was being careless and spilling varnish in the sawdust and when I swept the sawdust, it smeared the varnish across the floor with it.

I considered being a sacrifice so that one mountain wouldn't blow up and asked for a hammer and a nail. All I would have had to do was pound a nail somewhere through my ankle and it would have saved one mountain from destruction. But as I placed the nail against my flesh to pound the nail into my ankle, the pain was intense at every point I chose and I couldn't do it.

Even knowing that one swift blow of the hammer would be all it took and it would be over and mankind would be saved that much destruction, I couldn't do it. The thought of the pain I would suffer was too much to even think about. I handed the hammer and the nail back to the carpenter and went back to my meager sweeping job.

When I had done all I could, I went into a room where a round table was set up. This table had a rim around it to catch the white paint  that was going to be put on some icons or something that were going to be used in a ceremony of some kind. I noticed there were about 10 or 12 bottles of this white fluid about the size of correction fluid bottles. A man named Michael (the archangel?) had been there and had spilled some. I noticed that not only one bottle spilled, all the bottles had been spilled and what was left in each bottle  was so little and so watered down, it was useless to even try to do a ceremony with it.

At the door, I saw that there was many, many feet of snow and ice that had to be cleared away so that people could get around and spring could come and I was dreading having to get out there and shovel all that snow. There was already nowhere to go with it. But, fortunately, the sun came out while I was looking at the mess and it melted about half of it, so at least I was able to open the door to  begin the immense task.

I then went to look for the other members who were supposed to be arriving for this ceremony. Not all of them had arrived yet and  those who had, instead of quietly contemplating the event that was going to take place, had rented a car and went off sightseeing and partying. They invited me to go with them, but I didn't have the stomach for it, knowing what was coming.

It was no wonder that the world changes had to happen, no one was disciplined enough to do even the first sacrifice of or any of the work required to stave it off.

ACTIVE VOLCANO LINKS AROUND THE WORLD

A little over 150 years ago, in 1851, twenty-one eruptive events from ash or lava eruption to steam bursts occurred in the western United States from Northern California to Oregon and the state of Washington. Volcanoes involved Mt. Baker (WA), Mt. Rainier (WA), Mt. St. Helens (WA), Mt. Hood (OR), Three Sisters (OR), Mt. Shasta (CA), Cinder Cone (CA), and Chaos Crags (CA). Are events quickly shaping up to a much larger repeat to recent history? New research data indicates a definite – yes.

A large bulge was recently discovered on South Sister Cascades Mountain in Oregon:

Nature News Service, Science Update, 22 May 2002

Sister develops tell-tale bulge

“After 1500 years of quiet an Oregon volcano threatens to blow..”

“An ominous bulge on a dormant volcano in Oregon, accompanied by the faint whiff of magma from deep within the Earth, suggests that the mountain is rousing itself from a 1,500-year slumber…”

Eruptions from Steamboat Geyser – considered one of the tallest and most powerful geysers in Yellowstone can be from 4 days to 50 years apart. Recent years have seen an increase in the normally rare eruptions.

Yellowstone is known to have a massive magma chamber that has been bulging upward to near 3 ft from early survey work from 1923 to recent (1985)- although a net subsidence from 1985 to present.

Yellowstone National Park.com, 2003

‘Geology – Calderas’

“Earthquake data also suggest that soft or molten rock is close to the surface of Yellowstone. Minor earthquakes jiggle Yellowstone hundreds of times each year, but above the caldera the foci of these quakes are extremely shallow, less than three miles below the surface. These clues suggest that the material underlying Yellowstone is still very hot and ductile, as would be expected if a magma chamber still exists.

Swarms of earthquakes beneath Mount Hood (Oregon)

U.S. Geological Survey, January 14, 1999

Mt Hood – Information Statement

“..All of the earthquakes in the Mount Hood swarms have characteristics similar to tectonic earthquakes rather than volcanic earthquakes (indicative of magma movement). The recent Mount Hood earthquakes most likely result from regional tectonic stresses, although they may also be caused by deep seated changes in the volcano's plumbing system. Additional and significantly different geological and geophysical indicators would be expected before any future eruptive activity. Scientists will continue to monitor the situation closely..”

Swarms of earthquakes at Coso Volcanic Caldera (California) that has a known magma chamber, where it too has been moving upwards over geologic time.

Swarms of earthquakes at Long Valley Caldera (California) which has a known magma chamber that has been bulging upwards over the last few decades.

Recent discovery of strong ‘slow’ earthquakes moving across Pacific Northwest recurring every 14 months.

Geodesy Newsletter, 28 Mar 2002

NEW STUDY BY CWU SCIENTISTS REVEALS UNEXPECTED SLOW EARTHQUAKES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

In February 2002 a slow earthquake occurred in the Puget Sound region. Based on recurrence studies another is expected this Spring.

Make no mistake, these events are linked to much larger activity. They are directly related to what is “going on deep underneath”. Mainstream science is unaware of how dynamic the earth crustal mechanics actually turns out to demonstrate – it can change its elasticity of the crust where processes can accelerate at alarming rates.

Research instrumentation which is able to ‘see’ deep within the crust is watching a real-time interaction of all of these volcanic areas, from nearly the full length of California (Salton Sea to Mt Shasta), parts of Nevada, Pacific Northwest, and Eastern Idaho. This process has been building and is has been observed to be driven by Southern California from Salton Sea Basin/Mexicali-Imperial Valley rift region moving northward. While Pacific Northwest activity has been simultaneously responding at key volcanic locations in the Cascades. Recorded data illustrates a complex plumbing system that is acting as one – or the equivalent of a volcanic version of a much bigger San Andreas Fault except with a ‘Y’ to it.

Northward movement of the strongest energy – or the ‘head’ – of activity is as far northward as Owens Valley CA latitudes. Strong Earthquakes – such as Hector Mine 7.1 – have been observed to be symbiotic with the progression. Over the months, the subterranean progression has maintained a strong presence deep under the Coso Volcanic complex latitude. In recent data, the process now has strengthened a unified response in the Pacific Northwest subterranean readings. With the continued influx of solar flaring, the deep process is continuing to gather strength.

From: http://www.yowusa.com/Archive/Jun2003/volcanism1/volcanism1.htm

Earthquake, Volcano Cams and Eruption
Popular Volcano Webcams Mount St. Helens, Washington Popocatepetl, Mexico (Active!)

See News Mt. Fuji, Japan Mt. Ararat, Turkey Mt. Iwate, Japan Ruapehu, New Zealand ... Mauna Loa, Hawaii (Active!) Sakurajima, Japan

(Active!) Volcano Monitoring Links Italy

(Active!) Mt. Etna Italy

(Active!) Stromboli Italy

(Active!) Vulcano

British Columbia Mount Meager Whistler Alpine Webcam Mount Cayley Whistler Alpine Webcam ...
Mount Garibaldi

Washington Mount Baker Bluenose WebCam 2
Glacier Peak
Stevens Pass WebCam ... Mount Hood Meadows Cam Oregon Mount Hood Government Camp Road Cam Mount Jefferson
Broken Top
... Three Sisters

(This area is bulging 4 inches this year) Mount Bachelor Mount Bachelor SkyCams Newberry Volcano US 97 LaPine Road Cam ... Pelican Butte

California Medicine Lake Volcano Mount Shasta SnowCam Mount Shasta Lassen Peak ...
Mount Shasta Ski Park Cam

MAP - Potentially Active Volcanoes of the Western United States

MOUNT ETNA VOLCANO PAGE THE ANCIENT HIEROGLYPHS OF THE NILE
VOLCANO EVIDENCE
...
YELLOWSTONE SUPERVOLCANO


Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/other.html

Volcanoes and Volcano Hazards

 

NOTE: 8-9-03 - There have been 19 earthquakes in the Yellowstone Park area this past week, all below a 2.

During the month of September 2003, 80 earthquakes took place in the Yellowstone region! The largest quake was a magnitude 3.3 on September 10th at 10:20 UTC, located about 22.4 miles south southeast of West Thumb, Wyoming, near the southern park border. This earthquake is part of an aftershock sequence that began with a main quake that occurred on August 21, 2003, with a magnitude 4.4 has continued to produce smaller aftershocks.

October 30, 2002

Maps shows volcanic bottom of park lake

By MIKE STARK
Gazette Wyoming Bureau

New detailed maps reveal long-held secrets at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake, including explosion craters that stretch nearly a mile and hundreds of previously undocumented hot-water vents that dot the wrinkled and jagged floor.

The maps, four years in the making, also confirm that the lake bed is one of the most geologically active spots in Yellowstone National Park and could pose a hazard if there is a large earthquake, landslide or other major geological event.

"The floor of Yellowstone Lake is anything but quiet," said Lisa Morgan, a Denver-based research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey, who led the study.

Morgan and other members of the research team will present their findings today at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver.

Researchers used new surveying techniques, including a camera-equipped robot that traveled the lake bottom, to produce a thorough three-dimensional look at the farthest reaches of the nation's largest mountain lake.

"It does indeed change we what knew or what we thought we knew about Yellowstone Lake by quite a bit," said Robert Christiansen, head scientist at the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

The new maps will help scientists at the observatory as they put together a comprehensive look at geological hazards in Yellowstone in the coming year.

He said the new USGS maps reveal underwater features that could explode, possibly shooting hot mud or rocks out of the water or onto the shore. Christiansen emphasized that the threat of that kind of activity is only potential and there is no sign that anything is likely to happen soon.

"I'm not saying this is immediate or that we're telling people this is something to stay away from," he said. "But it's more to be aware of and something that should be investigated."

Hot springs, craters

Some of the earliest travelers to Yellowstone understood the 136-square-mile lake to be geologically active. Surveys and maps have been done along the shoreline and beneath the water, including one of the most detailed that was produced about 10 years ago.

But Morgan said the new technology and high-resolution pictures of the lake floor offer the best views ever.

"It's like having cataracts removed from your eyes," Morgan said of the new maps compared with those produced a decade ago. "It's that big of a difference."

Yellowstone Lake is part of the Yellowstone Caldera, formed by the last major volcanic eruption 630,000 years ago. The lake's deepest point is about 450 feet in a vent near Stevenson Island.

The surveys revealed more than 250 hydrothermal vents - hot springs bursting from the bottom of the lake. Only about 20 had been identified previously.

Morgan said there will certainly be more than 250 vents once all the data from the survey, which ended last month, are analyzed.

"That 250 pertains to only about a third of the lake," Morgan said.

The mapping project also revealed four underwater craters that scientists believe were caused by explosions thousands of years ago. The theory is that sediment or other material formed a cap on a hot spring. Pressure grew in the clogged vent until something - perhaps an earthquake or landslide - triggered an explosion, creating a steep-walled crater and sending rocks and other material flying.

Morgan said the edges of the craters were often peppered with "ejected material," including rocks several meters in diameter.

Mary Bay, on the northern reaches of the lake, is one of the largest hydrothermal explosion craters. One of the recently discovered craters, just south and west of Mary Bay, is almost a mile across, Morgan said.

Radiocarbon dating indicates that most of the explosions are recent in geological terms, with the oldest around 13,000 years ago. The latest may be between 6,000 and 8,000 years old, Morgan said.

'A significant basin'

The investigation also revealed a series of domes. Morgan and Christiansen speculated that the domes are trapping steam and could represent points where explosions could take place similar to those that created the underwater craters.

As long as the steam beneath the dome and the water above it exert similar pressures, the domes will probably hold. But if that pressure is destabilized, an explosion could take place.

"The domes are really something we're going to look at seriously to see if they are precursors to hydrothermal explosions," Morgan said.

Also on the maps are clear pictures of conical spires more than 20 feet high, lava flows that lace along the rugged bottom, fissures cutting deep cracks, and a fault line snaking 20 miles across the lake.

The intense geologic activity at the bottom of the lake is comparable to some of Yellowstone's best known attractions, including Upper and Norris geyser basins, Morgan said.

"It's another significant hydrothermal basin in Yellowstone National Park," she said. "I think that's probably one of the biggest discoveries in this mapping."

Bob Smith, a University of Utah researcher, said scientists have known for years that the lake bottom was chock full of vents and other activity. But this is the first time high-resolution images have been produced from mapping.

The result, he said, is getting to see perhaps what a geothermic basin looks like without the wear and tear of elements in the open air.

"My gut feeling is this is like what you'd see in a geyser basin if you covered it with water," Smith said. "We're seeing a nice view of a hydrothermal system that hasn't been eroded away by wind, rain and everything else."

Like other geothermal features in Yellowstone, those beneath Yellowstone Lake are driven by an enormous underground magma chamber that heats water from snow and rain percolating through porous rock. The water becomes superheated and creates steam and pressure that is eventually released through vents and other breaks in the ground.

Discovering how much activity was happening at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake took teamwork by seveal agencies, including USGS and the National Park Service, to harness technological and scientific expertise, Morgan said.

"Of the 25 years I have worked for USGS, this has definitely been the most fun," Morgan said.

The bathymetric maps along with computer-generated "fly throughs" of the underwater landscape will be put in final form this winter and could be available for purchase by next summer.



Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey
The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a four-year project mapping the bottom of Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park. This map shows the depths of the lake, ranging from 7,732 feet above sea level (light blue) to 7,420 above sea level (dark blue). The deepest parts of lake are in the middle of West Thumb and in a hydrothermal vent near Stevenson Island. The red lines represent fault lines that run along the lake floor. The pinks and browns on land indicate volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone Caldera about 630,000 years ago, while yellow and dark blue/purple represent older volcanic formations. The high-resolution maps were formed by merging data collected from multi-beam sonar and seismic reflection surveys and a submersible, camera-toting robot. The maps could be available to the public by next summer.


Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


LARRY PARK

EARTHQUAKE RESEARCHER

Larry Park has spent 23 years in Research & Development in leading high tech corporations in Silicon Forest (Oregon). He is currently a consulting specialist in Systems design analysis and complex hardware engineering, working with leading technological development groups including Intel, IBM, and Credence.

He formed the company Terra Research & Consulting, where for the past 10 years he has been researching and developing technology in earth precursory sciences, obtaining four patents with a fifth patent pending. He has conducted research in volcanic regions in California, Oregon, & Washington, along with the study of hundreds of earthquakes. The writer of "Forbidden Secrets of the Earthquake Revealed," data has lead him to form a new & complex theory on interaction of true seismic genesis processes. He has arrived at global earth equations which identify specific latitudinal resonant frequencies, and developed proprietary technology to observe genesis mechanisms to phenomena still considered mysterious to current science.

It Is Time To Cast a Worried
Eye Towards Yellowstone

Larry Park

To date, United States volcanologists have been lucky – Mt. St. Helens and Mt Pinatubo devastating climactic eruptions have given unmistakable warning signs. Many lives were saved by civil authorities responding to geologist’s advice through ‘red zone’ restrictions or evacuations. However, the worst-case scenario is what geologists dread – zero warning. This is precisely the case for a deadly stratovolcano –Mt Rainier - which puts upwards of 100,000 lives at risk where there may only be 15-30 minutes to run for high ground from a sudden Lahar (volcanic mudflow). Yet this pales in comparison to a sudden cataclysmic eruption of a supervolcano. Many times the lives are at risk from these giants. Yet scientists do not know what these giants can do. Their theories are giving a false sense of security. It is imperative that science ‘wakes up’ to the real dynamics, before it is too late.

This article will attempt to reveal the critical phenomena eluding science and the signs that are currently being interpreted through a lacking model of the earth. New technology, not currently in the hands of scientists, does observe the true nature of earth dynamics. The urgent warning sign will be discussed where readers will get insight into what is said officially, what is not said, and what is not known (by official geology) - regarding current conditions of supervolcano Yellowstone.

A few terms defined for article discussion:

Scalar wave – A ‘mass-less’ wave that propagates differently than traditional electromagnetic waves (radio waves). Scalar waves do not oscillate back and forth between magnetic and electrostatic, yet are real waves of energy. Therefore, to sense them, one requires different technology. Traditional radio wave technology will not properly sense pure Scalar waves.

Scalar – A difference in energy potential between two reference points, with a vector. Think of an arrow; the tip to tail length defines the strength; the pointing direction of arrow determines the 3-D direction it is pointing (from-to).

Gyro-scalar – A ‘precessing’ emanation of scalar wave similar to a rate of wobble to spinning top.

Resonance – a natural vibration or a vibration frequency.

The Instruments Were Right

Since the first volcanism article, Volcanoes In California, Idaho, and Pacific Northwest Building Towards Catastrophic Eruptions, the supervolcano Yellowstone has had reports of concerning developments prompting closure of a section in Norris Geyser Basin due to rapid heating of the ground, new steam vents, and increased geyser activity. The LDI II system is accurate (see: www.thetop.com/terraresearch for instrumentation technology).

”Revolutionary technology is observing an alarming deep subterranean process, which is bringing to life an underground system affecting the full state of California, the Pacific Northwest, and eastern Idaho (Yellowstone). Effects of this activity are providing small clues with regard to microquakes or swarms with moderate magnitudes up to 4’s, however the equivalent magnitude of ‘silent’ quake activity in the subterranean process are far greater. Why isn’t mainstream science aware of this? The answer is two reasons: the earth is being very ‘stealthy’ and second, mainstream science theories of crustal mechanics are faulty.”

Aug 21 event: “Rare magnitude 4.4 hits Wyoming near Yellowstone Park, Aug 21 – notable shallow depth of 0.3 miles”

“ …instrumentation that is able to ‘see’ deep within the crust is watching a real-time interaction of all of these volcanic areas”…”Recorded data illustrates a complex plumbing system that is acting as one – or the equivalent of a volcanic version of a much bigger San Andreas Fault except with a ‘Y’ to it.”

Aug 21 event: “The ‘Rare’ M4.4 quake is in line with a eastern arm of the ‘Y’ to Yellowstone.”

New Warnings – Scientists Take Heed

Forgive the urgency, but scientists need to understand that current crustal models may be rendered dangerously incorrect. In deep powerful conditions - that current instrumentation continues to record - the earth can ‘fool’ all leading volcanology to date. Yes, this is correct! Throw out all volcanology models. In very powerful scalar resonance the upper crust itself is alarmingly transformed into a soft state. The presence of thermal anomalies is an ominous sign – coupled with what instruments indicate activity at depth. If a scalar resonance develops near the supervolcano, the magma chamber just a few miles below can breach the roof. The roof is containing the colossal pressure. A sudden change if the crustal strength – i .e. softening – can lead to a dramatic failure with little to no warning.

Other scientific research is recognizing this phenomena of magma recycling from the upper crust – not from deep below. However, the new surprise awaiting science is how it can quickly transform the rock by a ‘scalar resonant’ effect.

Science Awakening to Thermal Anomaly Prior to Earthquake

Science is awakening to the phenomena of crustal heat prior to large earthquakes. Amazingly, science is even commenting on the hopes of predicting earthquakes from this new announcement. The ‘prediction’ word was deemed nearly impossible given reliance on the ‘self organized criticality’ models. Yet, theory still needs some catching up to the real earth dynamics.

What is The Risk – If A Supervolcano Erupts?

To get a sense of what it would be like, the following is a true account from Mt St Helens pyroclastic blast.

On a ridge in the ‘red zone’ less than 5 miles from the summit and moments before succumbing to a massive eruptive blast, USGS geologist David Johnston shouted “Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it!”. This was the last radio transmission from David to USGS Cascades Volcanic Observatory in Vancouver Washington when Mt. St. Helen’s north face bulge gave way Sunday morning May 18, 1980 - unleashing the equivalent of 500 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Over 150 square miles of majestic forest were instantly flattened from a high velocity searing hot lateral blast, leaving defoiled trunks arrayed in layers as toothpicks viewed from above. The mountain disgorged ash continuously for 9 hours afterward. Mr. Johnston’s body was never found.

For a supervolcano, this scenario would be hundreds if not thousands of times more powerful. The devastation of ash – high heat and burial risk – would endanger all life up to 600 miles in radius, not just a nearby pristine forest. Only to understand the unbelievable amount of ash capable of a major Yellowstone eruption, see web site for graphic of historic documented ashfall. Up to 20 states in the US will be either fully affected or partially.

Scientists were puzzled at how the magma chamber in this bulge at 7 miles down could transfer the heat to geyser systems near the surface. It was discussed of a form of deep cracks or fissures, but this was commented as ‘but that’s a long pipeline’. What isn’t considered is how the earth can heat the upper crust by scalar energy – no pipeline or fissure needed (although faults & fissures are natural scalar resonators).

Perhaps the most confusing - or potential of - commentary from a geologist in media regarding ‘activity 125 miles deep’. Geologists have strong data indicating that the magma chambers at Yellowstone range very close to the surface (estimates from geologic reports range from 1 to 3 miles in some areas – this from earthquake P wave data, gravitometric data, and from lack of earthquake occurrence below these numbers, indicates ductile material consistent with magmatic entities, although temperature may not be fully fluidic state). Scientists also know that large earthquakes are able to disturb the large magma chambers at Yellowstone. This was demonstrated by the recent effects from Mag 7.9 Denali earthquake in Alaska. Although true the lithospheric Moho discontinuity may range to 125 miles down, readers of comment of ‘activity 125 miles deep’ may infer that magma has to move all of this distance before being at risk of eruption. Clearly this is not the case – the magma is already poised in threatening chambers.

Destiny Comes To Those Who Listen, and Fate Finds The Rest

The bottom line is this, the transformation of the crust rigidity from scalar harmonic resonance is now happening beneath the feet of those living in and near the Yellowstone Park area. It cannot be felt under foot and conventional science has only been able to monitor it through indirect artifacts like geysers, temperature increases, land deformation, and steam vents. With these data collection methods, the possible amount of time for an advance warning is less than optimal, not including the political ramifications, which will only serve to slow the warning once the scientific data has been ascertained. However, through scalar resonance monitoring, the whole systemic processes now building beneath Yellowstone paint a very clear picture of a major eruption event in its early stages.

History and fiction are filled with accounts of warning signs that were ignored, or downplayed by those charged with monitoring those precursors for the purpose of sounding an alarm. The story line always follows the classic formula. Those who monitor precursor events are silenced or suppressed, by those who delegated their own personal responsibility for being aware, by making it someone else’s job. In the final analysis however, Mother Nature could care less who is responsible.

Watch this page at YOWUSA as well for updates.


INFORMATION BY LINDA MOULTON HOWE

Yellowstone National Park is in northwest corner of Wyoming.
In 1872, legislation was passed making Yellowstone the world's first national park
which covers 2.5 million acres of forests, hot springs, geysers and hot mud flats.

Yellowstone National Park in the northwestern corner of Wyoming. Yellowstone is its own very large volcanic system with boiling geysers and mud flows that have entertained the public for decades. Yellowstone has not had any volcanic eruptions for tens of thousands of years, but in the summer of 2003, one public trail heated up to about the boiling point of water which is 212 degrees Fahrenheit. This week I talked with the United States Geological Survey's' scientist-in-charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, Dr. Jacob Lowenstern, about the anomalous heating.

Jacob Lowenstern, Ph.D., Scientist-In-Charge, Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California: "Most of the anomalous behavior has been related to changes in the shallow hydro-thermal system. They are shallow processes that are going on. Yellowstone is a volcanic system, but most of what we see at the surface is related to the hydrothermal system which is well above any deep magma. Heat that rises off that magma, heats up the hydrothermal system. There is a lot of hot water. It's boiling underneath the ground. Steam rises. Hot water rises up to the surface. This year more boiling has been observed in the Norris Geyser Basin ­ that's one of several geyser basins scattered around Yellowstone.

IS IT TRUE THAT SOME OF THE SOIL TEMPERATURES THERE REACHED AS HIGH AS 200 DEGREES F?

That's right. Of course, that's a normal temperature for any steam vents at Yellowstone. That's the temperature of water when it's boiling, so that's a common temperature. But this summer, there was a variety of new vents that formed and many of them were right around the trail that goes through the back basin of the Norris Geyser Basin. So, obviously when you have soil temperatures and new steam vents forming right along a trail, it presents hazardous conditions for the public, so the park service prudently decided to close that area.

SO, THAT'S HOW IT BECAME PUBLIC ­ YOU HAD TO CLOSE A TRAIL BECAUSE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SOIL WAS SO HOT?

That's right.

WHAT DO YOU THINK IS ABOUT TO HAPPEN WHERE ALL OF THIS SOIL HAS GOTTEN SO HOT?

Well, we don't really know. It's very possible that it will just form new thermal areas and there will be new hot springs and fumeroles on that trail and there won't be any more problems aside from that. This is not that uncommon in the Norris area. There's another area called the "Ragged Hills" just to the west and that's been growing for the past ten years ­ slowly with increased boiling in the area and new thermal features that are spreading to the west.

AS A GEOLOGIST, DO YOU WORRY ABOUT VOLCANIC OR MAGMA FLOWS EVER COMING OUT IN YELLOWSTONE PARK?

It's always a possibility. It's not a high probability in any given year. Certainly, there have been many eruptions in the Yellowstone area. There have been some that have been very large.

But they've occurred in the distant past. the most recent was 640,000 years ago. Since then, there have been about 30 different eruptions, most of them much smaller, all of them much smaller. the most recent lava flow was about 70,000 years ago. So, it's always possible that we'll get another eruption in Yellowstone and that is something that we do monitor and look out for, but it's not something that is likely in any given year.

COULD AN ERUPTION OF MT. RAINIER INTO ACTIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTION, OR ONE OF THESE POSSIBLE 9 POINT ON THE RICHTER SCALE SEISMIC EVENTS OFF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST CAUSE SOME KIND OF MAJOR ERUPTION IN YELLOWSTONE?

An earthquake that far away ­ well, it's always possible. It's always possible, but it's not something that we would think would be likely."

This interview is copyrighted by Linda Moulton Howe


Subject: Fw: Volcanoes and The Ninth Thunder

Date: Fri, 2 Apr 2004 09:52:35 -0800

Yellow Stone ~ All these letters about Yellow Stone. Earthquakes, YES... Super Volcano , NO.

" There will be the mighty shaking of the Earth , and the rocking back and forth of the Praies in the areas known as Wyoming, and Montana. A new Mountain range will be born there. They will be called the Co-operation Mountains, as the forming of these new mountains will shock people with the display of force the Earth will show. Rivers will reverse their directions, And in many low lying and altered areas their will be rivers of magma, Rivers of Fire, as spoken about in Old Norse Myth's.

When the Yelow Stone begins to kick up anf shake, it willl be a signal that the Final Days are upon us. For this is one of the great valves of the Royal Tetons, the Paradigm shift will commence, making way for the New Earth. The Yellow Stone will become as the Himalayas and rise thousands of feet....... In thid Birthing of Fire, mankind will again see the coming of the Masters of Old."

Dr. Robert Ghost Wolf ~ 1996

The Ninth Thunder

All my relations,

Long have I talked about the upset of the tectonic plates and the arrival of an impending cataclysm. A cataclysm that would begin a chain of events which would lead to and would cause volcanic eruptions, as well the forming of new volcanoes, and the calling of Grandfather (Mt. Baker). Also I have spoken of a major upheaval not only along the Cascade chain, but to the East ..Near Montana. As many of you are aware there seems to be much activity around Yellowstone. There is even talk of the impending eruption of a super volcano. The prophecies of the Eight Thunders I eluded that there were more prophecies which could not at the time be released until I was given permission from my elders. That time has come and will soon be revealed in the Ninth Prophesy.

The dragon has shown his face, and as you read this is loosed upon the land. Soon that whole of humanity will watch in awe as the Dragon breaths its fiery breath upon the land. The devastation's will be wide spread, and the true meaning of shock and awe understood, as men of science, and the Priests of Organized Religions stand by in utter helplessness, observing the forces of nature unleashed. Look to the area known as Longs Valley Caldera for this is where that events that will change the Earth forever will commence; and the Earth Changes take hold of their destiny...

The tectonic plates comprise which what we call the Earths surface, or curst are always in an ebb and glow cycle of movement. These plates float upon what is known as 'the mantle. 'This mantle is comprised to two layers of magma. One that is soft and one that is stiff.

The inner mantle can be found between 190 miles (300 km) a 1,800 miles (2,890 km) below the earth's surface. The average temperature is 5400 ºF (3000ºC), nevertheless the rock is solid because of the high pressures. The inner mantle for the biggest part probably consists of sulphides and oxides of silicon and magnesium. The density is between 4.3g/cm³ and 5.4g/cm³.

The outer mantle is the one that the earth's surface rides on and is a lot thinner than the inner mantle. It can be found between 7 miles (10 km) and 190 miles (300 km) below the surface of the earth. You can divide the outer mantle into two different layers. The bottom layer is tough liquid rock and probably consists of silicates of iron and magnesium. The temperature in this part is between 2520 ºF (1400ºC) and 5400 º F (3000ºC) and the density is between 3.4g/cm³ and 4.3g/cm³. The upper layer of the outer mantle consists of the same material but is stiffer because of its lower temperature.

Most volcanoes are found along plate boundaries, but some such as Hawaii are found within a plate far from the boundaries. The most likely cause for this is a hot spot, which by the way may also be the cause of Yellowstone. Long Valley Caldera has been formed within a rift zone. In other words the area of Long Valley Caldera is being pulled apart. The New Madrid Fault Zone is a rift zone that for what ever reason failed.

A magma chamber exists beneath active and dormant volcanoes. I'm not ready to rule out inactive volcanoes just because the darn thing hasn't shown any activity in the last 100,000 years or so. This chamber was formed when magma from the mantle found its way up through the curst. For the most part there is no connection between volcanoes, but there are exceptions to every rule. Two volcanoes in Mexico have the same chamber as their source of magma. These volcanoes are Popo and Colima. There may be others, but I have no idea as to their locations. There is no connection between Yellowstone and Long Valley Caldera as the magma comes from two different sources as samples of past eruptions show. This is how Volcanologists know which volcano caused the extinction of some species.

There is a new volcano being born in Northern California at this very moment. Of course at the rate it is being born it still has at least 400,000 years to go before it makes it presence known. This is Lake Pillsbury, which about a 4-hour drive north of San Francisco...

It has been said " When the time will come for the shifting to begin, cannot be foretold. Only the circumstancea that avail them selves near that time can be seen. When the time comes and the shifting commences it will come as a thief in the night, and take you unawares.. prepare yourselves and make your temple ready for the day of the Lord is coming."

That time is now very close. What is spoken of here has effects that will effect the whole of our solar system, and those beyond. Tend to your temples and make them pure. Ready yourselves for your true salvation for all we can do no is observe... and know that those who carried the messages of the impending Earth Changes... Those who were given the visions of the maps by the masters... Truly were and those who remain, the messengers. Call close to you your loved ones , your children and elders who have been foresaken. Give up your judgements of others less you judge yourselves. Compassion and allowence are to be your new virtues, opening your hearts and abundance to all who are sent to your doors. Use discernment and discretion, for many a wolf will dorn sheeps clothing. Now it the time to awaken the Christ within us all. And to take responsibility , and positive actions to help those that make the effort, to cross the bridges of this limited reality...into the light.

And be certain to make peace with the heavens for the heavens are now upon us... and the wars of angels can be felt with each new breath

For we are voyagers of the light and that is all we are...Experiencing the dream as it unfolds in accordance with our thoughts, actions, and deeds.

In the light Grandfather. from a vision

Their are two more Thunder Prophecies that came from that meeting years ago with the elders, the 10th has to do with world pestilence, and the plagues. A complete break down in civil laws, and chaos around the worlds nations.

The 11th and Final of the Thunder Prophecies has everything to do with UFO's and the return of the Ancestors.... The Thunder Prophecies have a 100 % acuracy rate thus far.

Owále piki'la, Wakan Tanka, ni'ci' un

Shunkmanitu Tanka Wanagi Wahai Wiacasa

xxxxxx

LATEST EARTHQUAKE NEWS AT YELLOWSTONE

MORE AND LATEST NEWS
PAGE 2

Old Supervolcanoes Give Yellowstone Clues

By Larry O'Hanlon, Discovery News

March 17, 2005 — Clues to past and future mega-eruptions of North America's biggest volcanoes are being unearthed just miles from Yellowstone National Park.

An hour's drive southwest of Yellowstone is a place geologists call the Heise Volcanic Field. Heise is the most recently deceased ancestor in a 400-mile-long line of seven supervolcanoes, stretching from Yellowstone southwest to the Nevada-Idaho state line, near McDermitt, Nevada.

"These are all previous Yellowstones," said Lisa Morgan, a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver. "There's really a lot of interesting information we can get out of them."

Like, for instance, how often they erupt, how long they live and what are the signs they are about to erupt again.

Morgan and her colleague William McIntosh of the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources have some answers in a paper about the Heise Volcanic Field that they've published in the March-April edition of the GSA Bulletin.

First there is timing. According to the geologic evidence, Yellowstone's volatile old auntie Heise had four separate cataclysmic caldera-making eruptions in about 2.25 million years — from 6.65 million to 4.45 million years ago, Morgan said.

"Then there was a big hiatus before the first big Yellowstone eruption," Morgan said.

That hiatus lasted more than two million years, she points out, enough time for the North America tectonic plate to keep on steadily moving southwest, exposing fresh parts of the plate to the mysterious stationary hot spot that is burning up from below and powering the eruptions.

The first catastrophic Yellowstone eruption was about 2.1 million years ago, followed by another at 1.3 million years, and then the last big one at 640,000 years ago, Morgan said.

Clusters of mega-eruptions like those at Yellowstone and Heise, with long breaks in between, appear to be the pattern all the way back to more than 16 million years ago, when the original “Yellowstone” was created at McDermitt, Nev., Morgan said.

The life history of these burnt-out Yellowstones might be something like this: as the North American plate's movement pushes fresh, unmelted crust over the hotspot, the intense heat first liquefies the crust's most easily melted rocks — those granitic rocks made of quartz and feldspars minerals.

These are also relatively lightweight minerals, so they float upward, triggering powerful earthquakes along the way and causing dramatic swelling of the landscape as the molten rock gathers in a magma chambers near the surface.

Eventually, the magma bubble bursts onto the surface as one of those mega eruptions, Morgan explained.

Eventually, however, the supply of granitic minerals in the heated portion of crust is used up and the catastrophic eruptions end, she said.

Finally, as the North American Plate continues its inch-per-year creep to the southwest, the once-active caldera is moved off the hotspot.

"Yellowstone is probably in a late phase," said Yellowstone researcher Kenneth Pierce of the U.S. Geological Survey in Bozeman, Mont., regarding where Yellowstone might be in this supervolcano lifecycle.

If so, and if the hotspot activity follows the same pattern it has for 16 million years, there could be a long hiatus as the hotspot works on heating up a "new" Yellowstone up near Red Lodge, Mont., southwest of Billings, he said.

"Before long Billings could get a lot more exciting," Pierce joked.

.


Alaska Quake Changed Yellowstone Geysers

By University of Utah
05/29/04 Less than 18 hours after the Denali earthquake in Alaska, Smith and colleagues at the University of Utah Seismograph Stations reported the major jolt had triggered more than 200 small earthquakes in Yellowstone -- something widely reported by news media in the days following the quake.

A powerful earthquake that rocked Alaska in 2002 not only triggered small earthquakes almost 2,000 miles away at Wyoming's Yellowstone National Park -- as was reported at the time -- but also changed the timing and behavior of some of Yellowstone's geysers and hot springs, a new study says. "We did not expect to see these prolonged changes in the hydrothermal system," says University of Utah seismologist Robert B. Smith, a co-author of the study in the June issue of the journal Geology.

While other large quakes have been known to alter the activity of nearby geysers and hot springs, the Denali fault earthquake of Nov. 3, 2002, is the first known to have changed the behavior of such hydrothermal features at great distances, according to Smith and his colleagues. They say the magnitude-7.9 quake was one of the strongest of its type in North America in the past 150 years.

Smith conducted the study with Stephan Husen, a University of Utah adjunct assistant professor of geophysics who works at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; Ralph Taylor, an engineer who designs geyser monitoring equipment at Yellowstone National Park; and Henry Heasler, Yellowstone National Park´s geologist.

Yellowstone Quakes

Less than 18 hours after the Denali earthquake in Alaska, Smith and colleagues at the University of Utah Seismograph Stations reported the major jolt had triggered more than 200 small earthquakes in Yellowstone -- something widely reported by news media in the days following the quake.

Smith now says the triggered numbered more than 1,000 within a week of the Denali quake -- if the count includes tiny temblors that were not "located," meaning their epicenters and depths were not determined. He says the quakes ranged in magnitude from minus 0.5 to just under 3.0. (Tiny quakes have negative magnitudes because modern seismic equipment can detect quakes smaller than was possible when the logarithmic magnitude scales were devised.) Most of the triggered quakes were centered near geysers and hot springs.

Strong Earthquakes as Seismic and Geothermal Triggers Scientists once believed that an earthquake at one location could not trigger earthquakes at distant sites. That belief was shattered in 1992 when the magnitude-7.3 Landers earthquake in California´s Mojave Desert triggered a swarm of quakes more than 800 miles away at Yellowstone, as well as other temblors near Mammoth Lakes, California, and Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The magnitude-7.5 Hebgen Lake, Montana, quake northwest of Yellowstone -- a 1959 disaster that killed 28 people -- triggered changes in Yellowstone´s geysers and hot springs, something not unexpected for a strong quake nearby. Smith believes the Denali fault ruptured in such a direction -- from northwest to southeast -- that the brunt of its energy and its powerful surface waves were aimed southeast toward Yellowstone.

Geyser Activity

As a result, the stresses rippling through the ground at Yellowstone were 200 to 300 times greater than if the Denali quake´s waves were aimed elsewhere, he says. As the Denali quake´s surface waves arrived at Yellowstone, changes in hydrothermal activity first were noted at the 100 Spring Plain hot spring system in Norris Geyser Basin. "Several small hot springs, not known to have geysered before, suddenly surged into a heavy boil with eruptions as high as 1 meter [about 39 inches]," Smith and colleagues wrote in Geology. "The temperature at one of these springs increased rapidly from about 42 to 93to 199 degrees Fahrenheit]" and became much less acidic than normal. "In the same area, another hot spring that was usually clear showed muddy, turbid water." Meanwhile, some geysers erupted more frequently than normal, while others erupted less frequently.

Yellowstone has more than 10,000 geysers, hot springs and fumaroles (steam vents), and scientists monitored how often 22 of the geysers erupted during the winter of 2002-2003. Eight of the 22 "displayed notable changes in their eruption intervals" after the Denali quake, 10 showed no significant changes and the other four were too erratic in the timing of their eruptions to determine if the quake changed them, the researchers wrote. Of the eight that changed: -- Geysers that erupted more frequently following the Denali quake included Daisy, Depression, Plume and Riverside geysers in Upper Geyser Basin, and Pink Geyser in Lower Geyser Basin. -- Geysers that erupted less frequently after the Denali quake included Castle and Plate geysers in Upper Geyser Basin and Lone Pine Geyser in West Thumb Geyser Basin.

Most geysers returned to their normal timing days to months after the Denali quake. Oddly, geysers affected by earlier nearby earthquakes -- most notably Old Faithful and Grand Geyser in Upper Geyser Basin -- were not affected by the Denali earthquake.

How the Denali Quake Sparked Yellowstone Activity Scientists do not know if the strong surface waves from the Denali quake independently triggered Yellowstone´s small quakes and changes in geyser activity. Smith suspects not. He believes the Denali quake´s waves affected the geysers by changing water pressure in underground conduits or "pipes" that feed the geysers. Such changes -- which in some cases would have made hot water "flash" explosively into steam -- would have altered the pressure on adjacent faults, triggering small earthquakes nearby.

Ripple Effect

Why did some geysers erupt more often and others less often? The researchers believe that when the Denali quake waves rippled through Yellowstone, they jarred loose minerals that had sealed some underground hot water conduits. In some cases, that allowed superheated, pressurized water to flow more freely to make geysers erupt more often. In other cases, the rupturing of subterranean mineral seals enlarged the size of the conduits supplying geysers, reducing water pressure so those geysers erupted less often.

Smith speculates that yet other geysers remained unchanged because they did not have pent-up gas and water pressure and were not affected by the Denali quake´s surface waves. The Denali quake also generated noticeable water waves in Seattle´s Lake Union, Louisiana´s Lake Pontchartrain and in swimming pools on the East Coast. It also triggered small quakes in California´s Geysers geothermal area, which is north of San Francisco, and in eastern California´s Long Valley, which, like Yellowstone, is a caldera, or giant volcanic crater created by cataclysmic prehistoric volcanic eruptions.

Hydrothermal Explosions?

The Denali quake also triggered a few small quakes in Utah, and Smith says it is possible some of those quakes occurred near little-known hot springs along the Wasatch fault at the base of the Wasatch Range. Smith says the fact that the Denali quake triggered geyser and hot springs changes at Yellowstone raises an interesting question: "Could large earthquakes closer to Yellowstone trigger hydrothermal explosions?" Such steam-and-hot water explosions in prehistoric times blasted out a hole that now is Mary´s Bay on Yellowstone Lake.

One such explosion has occurred roughly every 1,000 years since the glaciers receded from Yellowstone roughly 14,000 years ago. Smith says there is no evidence prehistoric quakes triggered those blasts. And such explosions were not triggered by the magnitude-7.5 Hebgen Lake, Mont., quake in 1959 or the magnituk, Idaho, quake in 1983. Nevertheless, a big quake near Yellowstone with its surface waves aimed the right way conceivably might "cause large hydrothermal eruptions," says Smith. "I would hypothesize that is certainly possible."

© 2004 Newswise i/a/w MarketWatch.com, Inc. All rights reserved.

ALASKA EARTHQUAKE DANGERS
... loss. Anchorage High School and Denali Grade School were damaged severely.
Duration ... M 7.9 Denali fault event of November 3, 2002.
www.greatdreams.com/alaska/alaska-dangers.htm

UPDATE: 14 April 2004


[Editor's Note] - I wish they'd make up their minds if this is dangerous - or Not!!!

April 28, 2004

Yellowstone Park unlikely to blow up anytime soon: No signs of cataclysmic eruption

By MIKE STARK
Of The Gazette Staff

Here's a reason to breathe easier: Civilization probably won't be crippled anytime soon by a pulverizing volcanic eruption at Yellowstone National Park.

New research indicates there is probably not a huge pot of magma brewing beneath Yellowstone that's building up to a superviolent eruption thousands of times more powerful than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.

"If something like that was cooking up right now we'd see the evidence, and we don't," said Drew Coleman, an assistant geology professor at the University of North Carolina.

Coleman is one of three scientists who authored two recent studies aimed at changing the way we think about volcanoes - especially how often the "big ones" erupt.

Earth has seen staggering volcanic eruptions. The last was about 75,000 years ago when an eruption at the Toba volcano in Indonesia may have come close to wiping out all primates, including humans, university officials said.

Yellowstone, the largest known center of active volcanism on the planet, has had its share. Massive eruptions 2 million, 1.3 million and 630,000 years ago were 2,500, 280 and 1,000 times larger, respectively, than Mount St. Helens.

The latest major eruption formed the famous Yellowstone Caldera than encircles Old Faithful, Canyon, Grant Village and portions of Yellowstone Lake.

"It's not hyperbole to say that the biggest eruptions could bring an end to civilization," said Allen F. Glazner, a geology professor at UNC. "Our new work casts doubt on the assumption that gigantic eruptions should be relatively common."

To reach that conclusion, Coleman, Glazner and the University of Utah's John Bartley examined long-extinct volcanoes in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains.

In particular, they studied bodies of magma that have cooled underground, called plutons, which are the main building blocks of the Earth's crust. They also examined seismic waves produced during earthquakes and measured magma cooling.

According to traditional geologic theories, they should have found big blobs of magma beneath the surface that formed in less than 1 million years - a relatively short period of time on a geologic scale. The huge stores of magma, which is underground molten rock, were thought to be lurking beneath active volcanoes and feeding large-scale eruptions.

Instead, they found that it takes much longer for those plutons to form, up to 10 million years, and that it happens in small fits and starts, not with a big blob of magma rising up.

That means that the giant eruptions fueled by large volumes of magma are less likely to happen, the researchers concluded.

"We conclude that volcanoes are more prone to chugging along, producing many small - though still dangerous - eruptions such as the 1980 eruption at Mount St. Helens, rather than huge civilization-destroying eruptions," Coleman said.

Although the research focused on the Sierra Nevada, Coleman said the results apply to places like Yellowstone.

The findings, which have already drawn praise from some and will likely spur controversy, appear in the April issue of GSA Today and the May issue of Geology.

The research comes amid international debate over the existence of mantle plumes, the columns of hot rocks that were typically thought to rise from deep within the Earth, giving life to volcanoes in Yellowstone, Hawaii, Iceland and elsewhere.

Recent research by the U.S. Geological Survey and others suggests there may not be a deep plume beneath Yellowstone. Instead, a shallow skin of magma beneath the ground may fuel the area's vast geothermal system.

Events at the park, including the discovery of a bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake and briefly higher temperatures at Norris Geyser Basin, have ignited Internet chatter over the possibility of a "supervolcanic" eruption at Yellowstone.

Like other geologists who have weighed in, UNC's Coleman said that prospect seems unlikely for a long time to come.

"Of the seismic evidence under Yellowstone that I'm familiar with, there's no big volume of magma waiting to blow," he said.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


FROM: http://www.swvrc.org/restless.htm

 

Ball Yellowstone YELLOWSTONE - (44o26'00"S 110o40'00"W), 2,805 m, UNITED STATES (Wyoming)

As of the 14th of April, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), reported that during March 2004, 72 earthquakes were located in the Yellowstone region. The largest shock to occur during this period was a magnitude 1.9 earthquake on March 28 at 9:39 PM MST, located about 1.8 miles north northwest of Fishing Bridge, Wyoming. Earthquake activity in the Yellowstone region is at background levels.

Seismic images of the lake sediments in this area show that they were tilted, hinting that the region may have been pushed up or "inflated." The amount of inflation would be much less than the 100-foot height of the feature, but is currently unknown. The images appear to indicate that the uplift is associated with accumulation of gas from Yellowstone's hydrothermal (hot water) system. Similar inferred gas accumulations were also noted elsewhere within the lake. Future research will assess the amount of uplift and its origin, whether by gas buildup or other potential mechanisms.

At present, there is no evidence of recent growth of any features beneath the lake, and there is no indication that residents or visitors are in any danger. Temperature measurements from hydrothermal vents taken this year indicate no change in temperatures compared to those taken last year. The feature may have been there for decades or much longer.

On March 10, 2003, Yellowstone Park biologists discovered 5 dead bison along the Gibbon River near Norris geyser basin. The bison appear to have died about one week earlier due to inhalation of toxic geothermal gases. The gases, most probably CO2 and/or H2S, likely accumulated in a low area due to very cold windless conditions. Though such events are rare, over the Park's 132-year history similar animal kills have occurred several times. Visitors can safely view Yellowstone's thermal areas by staying on designated trails and boardwalks

The colour code at Yellowstone is currently at GREEN . ERUPTION Pro 10.5 is not capable of forecasting a supervolcano to erupt.

Ball 3 Sisters MEDICINE LAKE - (41o35'00"S 121o44'00"W), 2,412 m, UNITED STATES (California)

As of the 28th of March, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), reported that the swarm of micro-quakes rumbling deep beneath the bulge by South Sister volcano tapered off but didn't completely stop Thursday, as scientists began using a second, portable seismometer in hopes of getting a better feel for just what is going on beneath the Earth's swelling crust. Only a couple of sizable quakes were reported Thursday, though one just before noon registered 1.9 on the Richter scale, equal to the largest of more than 100 temblors recorded Tuesday and early Wednesday, according to the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network.

U.S. Geological Survey scientists said Wednesday that the swarm of small quakes that began about 10 a.m. Tuesday had been expected and was an indication that a modest volume of magma (molten rock) was intruding to an area about four miles below the surface. The bulge that first was spotted through satellite-image comparisons in 2001 is believed to have raised the ground about 10 inches since it began in late 199.7. Willie Scott, scientist in charge of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Wash., said Thursday that they still saw a decline in quakes from the peak registered late Tuesday, but only time will tell. He also confirmed the propriety of calling the temblors "micro-earthquakes," which he said is a term used commonly for these types of events. Right away, it gives the reader the news that these are tiny. Remember that the Richter scale is logarithmic, not linear.

The official count of locatable earthquakes stood around 80 at mid-afternoon Thursday, Scott said. No new ones had been reported at the site by midday Friday, meaning the swarm is likely at an end. "There are many other, smaller ones that are not locatable", he explained. "As they get diminishingly small, they get more difficult to recognize, so an absolute count is not possible. The excruciatingly exact number is not a particularly useful piece of data." The epicentres of the small, deep quakes appeared to be spread over a wide area, according to the mapping. But Scott said that, too, is not unusual, due to uncertainty about the precise locations. "These swarms typically define a patch of epicenters, as this one has," he said. Scott said crews planned to go in to repair the gear, apparently damaged by heavy snowfall, on Sunday or Monday, weather permitting. No other new equipment is likely to be installed at the site until summer, after the snow melts, he said, unless the level of activity warrants going in sooner.

The colour code at Medicine Lake is currently at GREEN . ERUPTION Pro 10.5 is currently forecasting volcano Medicine Lake to erupt in 2004 with >25.68% probability.

 


Wednesday, Mar 31, 2004

Yellowstone to Move Artifacts to New Gardiner, Mont., Center

By Mike Stark, Billings Gazette, Mont. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News

Mar. 30--GARDINER, Mont. - The 5 million objects in Yellowstone National Park's archive, library and museum collection will have a new home this summer.

The trick will be getting them there.

Construction is nearly complete on the 32,000-square-foot Yellowstone Heritage and Research Center, one of the National Park Service's most ambitious attempts to store park artifacts and create a modern research facility for staff and visitors.

The building, located near Yellowstone's north entrance, should be finished in May so that park workers in June can begin trucking objects -- everything from old maps and original paintings to bird specimens, rare books and fossils -- the 5 miles from Mammoth Hot Springs to Gardiner.

"I don't think a collections move of this size has ever happened before," said Colleen Curry, Yellowstone's supervisory museum curator.

The $6.1 million building will replace the cramped quarters at Mammoth's Albright Visitor Center, where artifacts from the nation's first national park are shoe-horned into every available basement space.

Park officials estimate that when the new building opens this fall it will provide five times the space for Yellowstone's library and archives, including 20,000 rare and not-so-rare books, and seven times the space for the museum.

The new facility will also be open to the public, where research can be conducted in an airy, roomy environment instead bumping elbows around a single table in the confined spaces of the Mammoth building.

"Right now, it's tough in the space we're in," said Roger Anderson, Yellowstone's acting chief of cultural resources.

While the building has been under construction, Yellowstone staffers have been trying since October to document every item that will be transported and stored there.

That means conducting a painstaking inventory, including about 90,000 photographs and nearly 300,000 natural and cultural objects.

The park conducts a random inventory of a select number of items each year, but a complete inventory at one time is new territory.

"It had never really been done," Curry said.

With the inventory nearing completion, park officials are gearing up for the big move. Four teams of 20 people, including park staff, volunteers and interns, will work together to package items and transport them to the new location.

Yellowstone officials will get help from Alice Newton, the National Park Service's "move guru," who coordinates similar moves throughout the agency.

Some items -- such as the older mounted specimens of bear cubs and birds that were preserved with arsenic -- will require special handling.

"We'll probably have to wear respirators while we're packing them and many will be hand-carried in smaller vans or station wagons," Curry said.

Original paintings by Thomas Moran and some rare documents will also get special treatment on their way to the new building.

"It's pretty daunting when you're talking about 5 million items," Curry said. Yellowstone National Park has generated a lot of "stuff" since its inception in 1872.

The vast majority of what's being stored is documents such as studies, journals, decisions, maps and geyser logs.

Yellowstone, because of its huge collection, is the only national park affiliated with the National Archives, which comes with its own set of rules about how items must be cared for. In 1989, the Inspector General cited the park for failing to adequately take care of its collections. Although park officials took some remedial action, the fundamental problem was that the park's main storage facility was in the basement of a nearly 100-year-old building that's prone to flooding.

The new heritage center was built with National Archives standards in mind, including rigorous control over temperature and environmental conditions.

The center will also provide more room to process incoming objects, whether they are old photo albums, park ranger uniforms, postcards or archaeological evidence.

"We get about 1,000 new objects every year," Anderson said. "That makes it a challenge in the existing space."

In the basement, a collections "quarantine" room will give park officials a chance to look over each item and make sure it's ready to be stored at the center. A proper venting system will help in decontaminating objects or accommodating tribal rituals for sacred objects donated to the park.

Nearby, archaeology and geology labs will give park scientists their own place to work.

"Right now, we have a physical science trailer," Anderson said.

On the main floor, pieces of Yellowstone's collection will be displayed and the naturally lighted library will include plenty of shelf space and a climate-controlled room for rare books. The 1,400 researchers that visit Yellowstone's collections annually will have more work space and more organized access to park materials.

At Albright, "we can't really offer tours of different storage areas and can't accommodate researchers in a comfortable way," Curry said. "There's a lot of excitement about this."

The move is expected to last through the summer. An opening date this fall has not been set.

When it happens, though, Anderson predicted that Yellowstone's story -- told in the bits and pieces of 5 million objects -- will come together in a more cohesive way.

"It's going to make a huge difference," he said.

-----

To see more of the Billings Gazette, or to subscribe to the newspaper, go to http://www.billingsgazette.com

© 2004, Billings Gazette, Mont. Distributed by Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.


Editor's Note:  Elk have been eating lichen for thousands of years, why would they die from it just now??????

Diet substance may have killed elk

Friday, March 26, 2004 Posted: 9:57 AM EST (1457 GMT)

CHEYENNE, Wyoming (AP) -- A substance found in some weight-loss diet supplements -- and in a type of lichen -- may have fatally poisoned more than 300 elk in Wyoming in recent weeks, scientists say.

Scientists theorize the substance, usnic acid, may have caused the animals to weaken and collapse -- too helpless to eat, drink or escape predators. The chemical was extracted from tumbleweed shield lichen, which grows on the ground in many northern states.

Captive elk fed it developed the same fatal illness; usnic acid poisoning also has been documented in livestock, though cattle tend to recover.

Scientists say they cannot yet confirm their suspicion. For example, it is not clear why the poisoning didn't affect the animals' livers -- as it might in humans. Instead, the elk muscles appeared pale and sickly.

"That's one of the reasons we don't want to chalk this up to usnic acid at this point," said Walt Cook, a wildlife veterinarian at Wyoming's state veterinary lab in Laramie. "Either the usnic acid is affecting the elk differently or it's not usnic acid at all. There may well be other compounds in there that may be the toxic compounds."

Cook said it will take a few more months to confirm a cause.

Usnic acid has anti-bacterial properties and lichen containing it have several uses in traditional medicine, including as a poultice. Put into pills, it can promote weight loss by boosting metabolism.

Side effects from the substance have occurred, however. In January, the Food and Drug Administration said more study is needed of three diet drugs, including usnic acid.

In 2001, the FDA asked Syntrax Innovations to stop selling Lipokinetix, a diet drug containing usnic acid, saying it was to blame for a number of serious liver injuries in some people who used the drug more than two weeks.

Usnic acid is still readily available over the Internet.

"As we learn of the information and evaluate the science behind it, we'll proceed accordingly," said Kimberly Rawlings, an FDA spokeswoman.

Copyright 2004 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.


Poison gas kills five bison in Yellowstone

By SCOTT McMILLION, Chronicle Staff Writer

Five bison have died after being exposed to poison gas in a geyser basin in Yellowstone National Park.

The dead animals were discovered March 10 in the Norris Geyser Basin. They probably had been dead about a week, the National Park Service announced Tuesday.

The two adults, two calves and a yearling, were found "lying on their sides, with their feet perpendicular to their bodies," the announcement said. "The unusual position of the carcasses indicates the bison died very rapidly, as a group."

The bison probably succumbed to a combination of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide emitted by nearby thermal features.

Park scientists, lead by geologist Henry Heasler, surmise the animals were grazing alongside the Gibbon River during an unusually cold and still night about March 1, when a cold front passed through the area.

The weather probably caused the steam and toxic gases to remain close to the ground and concentrate in lethal doses.

Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide can accumulate in low areas when the air is still because they are denser than air.

Some of the nearby vents spewed gas that was more than 200 parts per million hydrogen sulfide, which is commonly known as "rotten egg" gas because of its distinct smell.

Humans can easily detect the gas at levels as low as one part per million and "are able to escape an area well before it reaches a toxic level," the Park Service said.

"The fairly constant wind in the Yellowstone area dilutes and disperses gases so that it would be almost unheard of for a park visitor to be overcome by toxic fumes as the bison were," the Park Service said.

Still, animals sometimes fall to the toxic gases.

There is an area known as Death Gulch in the upper Lamar River Valley where dead animals were found in the 19th century.

In 1899, a geologist found six bears, an elk and several rodents and other small creatures there. Another biologist found seven dead bears there in 1899.

Other researchers have noted the presence of deadly gases in Yellowstone over the years.


Yellowstone's Explosive Secret

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyoming, March 23, 2004

Old Faithful Geyser erupts in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  (Photo: AP)

Online doomsday scenarios are swirling all over chat rooms telling visitors to stay away. Yellowstone, they warn, could blow.

(CBS) For years, CBS News Correspondent Sandra Hughes reports, scientists have tried to understand the dynamic nature of Yellowstone National Park.

"It's beautiful up here, everybody should see this at one time or another," says one appreciative observer.

Scientisth Lisa Morgan may have unlocked one piece in the puzzle, deep below the park's biggest lake.

"It is kind of the last unmapped frontier in Yellowstone National Park," says Morgan.

What she found looks more like the surface of the moon. Using sonar she's identified a massive bulging dome the size of seven football fields. The only other underwater dome in Yellowstone was the site of a major explosion.

"The most extreme event, which occurred 13,800 years ago, went about as far as five miles away from source," says Morgan.

It spewed boiling water, steam and rocks, and the fear of it happening again started another explosion of sorts: this one on the Internet. Online doomsday scenarios are swirling all over chat rooms telling visitors to stay away. Yellowstone, they warn, could blow.

Yellowstone National Park sits on top of one of the most active volcanoes in the world with more than 10,000 vents, geysers and bubbling hot springs. That's part of the reason more than 3 million people come here each year.

So for Morgan it is important to clarify. She doesn't think the big dome is ready to explode, but park ranger Hank Heasler says Yellowstone is unpredictable.

"The bottom line is we still don't know all that much about what's going on at Yellowstone," says Heasler.

So he takes the job of keeping visitors safe seriously, constantly monitoring temperatures.

And that's not always easy. A trail near the Norris Geyser was closed last summer and is still boiling hot enough to burn through shoes.

"If the temperatures here gets above boiling, then we know that there's a potential for the water to just rapidly flash to steam and cause one of these hydrothermal explosions," says Heasler.

Which is exactly what Old Faithful and her companion geysers do almost daily and that's why scientists from around the world are watching this latest discovery and wondering what nature has planned next.


© MMIV, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.


http://www.rumormillnews.com

YELLOWSTONE & HIGH TIDE?

Posted By: WhiteRaven

Date: Monday, 15 March 2004, 1:09 a.m.

From a Reader (no source for any this information was given. I cannot verify the earthquake mentioned. WR):

Yellowstone

"Also, intense goings-on in Yellowstone Park. 300 elk died overnight last week with no viral agent discovered. Could be sulfide or CO 2 gas did them in. Hydrogen sulfide levels are way up in the park. Definite sign of seismic action and geothermal welling upward. There is a full scale disaster practice called for March 21. Tourists are being turned away. Level of the bottom of the lake is up 100 feet... a big bulge ready to pop. Something may blow soon.

High tide of 7+ feet is due March 17-24 but near record high tides are due in June and July, 9.0 feet +, which could influence fluid physics enough BETWEEN the Rockies and the West coast to trigger a major earthquake of 7 or better. There is a 75% chance of a quake of this magnitude occurring, but where it will occur is tough to nail down. It depends on structural stress and where that stress is most critical. Last week in the park, there was a 6.5 quake and 3.2 aftershock. If the tide triggers a quake and an eruption in the Yellowstone caldera, there could be enough downwind clastics to affect Midwest grain crops and send prices of them AND HEDGE METALS way up. St. Helen's happened just this way. Fast with short notice. Stay tuned ......

A note of interest: within one week of high tide was when Mt St. Helen's blew up here in Washington State, Pacific NW


777 Nez Pierce Indians Are Leaving Yellowstone Area

Molon4labe Email News List Molon4labe@xxx

The Bald Eagle, The Bird of FreedomGlides , gazing, calm and sure!

Nez Pierce Indians Are Leaving Cap Wilderness Area:
Other Indian tribes also leaving Yellowstone
AreaRumor Mill NewsPosted
By: NovadeDate: Thursday, 15 January 2004, 1:28 a.m.

While browsing I ran across a discussion on a forum indicating the Nez Perce tribe were leaving the above area. Apparently tribal leaders White Eagle and Smiling Bear held an emergency conference and decided the tribe needed to pullback from the coastal areas as large game animals were doing so.They are located in Oregon's Imnaha area.

They indicated they would follow the animals to Hell's Canyon and the Cathedral Cave area. Other Indians in the area are moving in with tribes in Idaho and are leaving the Yellowstone area. Reports also indicate the animals and the Snake River itself are eerily calm. I cannot give anyone a guarantee concerning this information but anyone living in this area should be able to verify. There was a recent earthquake of 3.3in Washington and five volcanoes have become active in Russia. Massive ash is said to be comming from Shiveluch on Kamchatka Peninsula over the past 24 hours with local tremors and thermal anomalies.

Klyuchevskaya Sopka and Bezimyanny are also spewing ash as will as Japan's Mount Attoso. It is not out of the question these anomolies may be spreading around the ring of fire through Alaska and the Pacific coastal areas.I do not know how valid the information is concerning the local tribes but if I lived in that area, I would take a look at it.When the animals begin a retreat, it would seem serious.


March 4, 2004

Last modified March 4, 2004 - 1:53 am

Teton Fault quake monitors installed

Associated Press

JACKSON, Wyo. - A network of sensors being installed to monitor earthquakes along the Teton Fault in northwest Wyoming should be completed by the end of August, seismologist Harley Benz said.

The seismic network of seven to eight monitors will help emergency response teams prepare for earthquakes, said Benz, who works for the U.S. Geological Survey at the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colo. The agency that is installing the network of sensors in Jackson Hole.

The new sensors will provide more data about earthquakes than a network of older monitors recently removed by the Bureau of Reclamation. Teton County fought the BLM over removing the monitors but lost.

Benz said the new system will be able to tell scientists where the quake is, how big it is and the distribution of ground shaking.

Once the network is completed, scientists will be able to project potential earthquake effects such as landslides by mapping the distribution of ground shaking.

"We can make the community more resilient to earthquakes," Benz said. "These shake maps from an emergency point of view are very effective."

Earthquake prediction is not part of the program. But geologists say the network would let residents know if the long-dormant Teton Fault moves.

Teton County Commissioner Bill Paddleford also wants to use the seismic network to get vital information about earthquakes by being connected to the National Earthquake Center, which globally monitors earthquakes 24 hours a day.

"We'll be able to tell you within three to five minutes exactly where the earthquake was and it's magnitude," Benz said. "We want to be able to provide all the parameters that go into effective damage reduction strategies."

The entire network area will also include two in Idaho near Felt and Victor.

There are 400 to 500 monitoring stations all over the United States, Benz said.

The federal government is paying the estimated $250,000 cost of installing the sensors.

Copyright © 2004 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


A REPORTER IN DENIAL OR TRYING TO KEEP US ALL CALM?

When green trees are under water on only one side of the lake, what does that tell you?

Yellowstone Lake dome unlikely to explode: Internet chatter about coming cataclysm unsupported

By MIKE STARK

Of The Gazette Staff

There's no evidence that a large bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake is something new, something growing or something dangerous, according to a U.S. Geological Survey scientists.

Lisa Morgan, who has been mapping and studying Yellowstone National Park's largest lake intensively, said a five-year analysis of the dome doesn't bear out any of the cataclysmic claims circulated on the Internet and elsewhere that the structure is ready to blow its top.

"We have no evidence there's been any physical changes to the structure or chemical changes, for that matter," Morgan said Thursday.

This summer, certain media reports and Internet chatter played up the discovery of the underwater dome, a rounded 100-foot tall formation just south-southwest of Storm Point. At the time, the structure was called an "inflated plain." Some took the term to mean that the dome was growing and others inferred that it meant a disaster was lurking at Yellowstone on the scale of the caldera-forming volcanic eruptions about 600,000 years ago.

As the story circulated, some called USGS and others with questions about whether it was safe to travel to Yellowstone.

"Some people got very confused and very scared," Morgan said.

Over the fall and winter, scientists used computers to analyze thousands of measurements taken of the dome in recent years. Specifically, they were looking for signs that it was expanding or changing.

"At this point, we don't think we can see any differential movement," she said.

In fact, the land formation may have stopped moving a long time ago.

Morgan said she and other scientists believe that the dome was not formed by magma churning up from a source far below the surface but was formed by rhyolitic lava flows between 70,000 and 150,000 years ago.

Like the hilly and bumpy formations on Pitchstone Plateau and elsewhere in Yellowstone, those flows shaped much of the Yellowstone Lake bottom that's inside the caldera, Morgan said, and the dome appears to be in that mix. Over time, it has been covered over by glacial deposits and lake sediments. On the side of the dome are dozens of hydrothermal vents.

"There's nothing really to indicate this is new activity," she said. "It's not something that grew out of nowhere in the last couple of days."

The vents, which spew sediments, bubbles and other material, contribute to the hydrogen sulfide smell that researchers have smelled as they passed over the area in a boat. The geothermal system on the lake bottom is probably about the same size at Norris Geyser Basin, she said.

Contrary to some stories about the "inflated plain," Morgan said there is no evidence that a hydrothermal event could trigger a massive geologic explosion in Yellowstone.

"The systems really aren't physically connected," she said.

Morgan said she's hoping the new information will help inform the discussion about the bulge, which became an international topic after stories claiming the bulge could spell destruction for Yellowstone and the surrounding area.

These days, the "inflated plain" has temporarily been tagged with the more benign-sounding "Weasel Creek/Storm Point Vent System."

It's still possible that the bulge could explode - but not nearly to the scale that some have speculated, Morgan said.

An explosion, which is rare, might result in crater formations such as Mary Bay or Turbid Lake nearby. The dome could also result in a relatively tame collapse similar to what happened at Storm Point thousands of years ago or it could crack and release fluids and pressure, similar to what once happened at Sedge Bay.

Although the bulge doesn't appear to be some harbinger of catastrophe, it still holds plenty of scientific value, including learning about how hydrothermal systems evolve under water, Morgan said.

"I'm still very fascinated," she said.


Tue, 10 Feb 2004

From: barrymartin

Date: Monday, February 09, 2004

Subject: More info On Yellowstone

Thought you might find this important to report. Thanks for the work   you do. Barry Snyder

Message to All Peacemakers:

By Bennie LeBeau, Eastern Shoshone, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming
Member of the Council of Spiritual Elders of Mother Earth.

Our Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are calling for our prayers.

Many of you understand the relationship of the energy grid lines of heaven and earth and its relationship with this next eclipse. They are like to the nervous
system of your bodies and its wiring system. Earth Mother is being stressed out by bad vibrations and some of us as well. With this increasing  solar activity, so it is with Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks sacred sites that are asking for help. We have come together because our hearts are responding for a change. This change is necessary for the survival of our home planet Earth, our Mother. It is time to forgive and forget and move forward into sacredness.

The words that have been given in prophecy by the Hopi, they have said, "We are the people we have been waiting for." I am Bennie LeBeau from the Eastern Shoshone Nation in Wyoming. I am also a member of the Council of The Spiritual Elders of Mother Earth. I believe many of you may remember  what we are representing as Eastern Shoshone peoples in the Grand Teton and the Yellowstone National Parks. This is part of our original homelands written in our treaty as a sovereign country and that our cultural traditions  would not be forgotten in order to utilize these sacred sites areas. Since September of 1999, we have been attempting to gain permission for our most sacred  ceremony the Sundance and other ceremonies to be allowed in the Grand Tetons and Yellowstone Park, along with many other Indigenous Nations of this country.

The park officials and the general public are beginning to see the significance of why it is needed. Now it is most evident because of the seismic volcanic activity in and around the Grand Teton and the Yellowstone National Parks.

What we have helped escalate as humans is the disturbance to the web  of life on earth in these sacred site areas. Remembering the words from the  past by a power ful messenger, Chief Seattle stated, "Whatever befalls the earth, befalls the sons of earth. . . the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth... all things are connected...man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it...whatever he does to the web, he does to himself."

On October 22, 2003 a message stated in July that the Yellowstone Park rangers closed the entire Norris Geyer Basin because of the deformation of the land and the excess temperature. There is an area there that is 28 miles long  and 7 miles wide that has bulged upward over five inches since 1996. This year the ground temperature on that budge has reached over 200 degrees. There was no choice but to close off the whole area. Everything in that area is dying. The trees, flowers, and grasses resemble a dead zone and are spreading outward. The animals are literally migrating out of the park. This isn't hearsay. It is coming from people who have actually visited the park in the last few weeks. The later part of  July, one of the park geologists discovered a huge bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake.

The bulge has already risen over 100 feet from the bottom of the lake. The water temperature at the surface of the bulge has reached 88 degrees and is still rising.  Keep in mind that Yellowstone Lake is a high mountain lake with a very cold-water temperature. The lake is now closed to the public. It is filled with dead fish floating everywhere. The same is true of the Yellowstone River and most of the steams in the park. Dead and dying fish are filling the water everywhere. Many picnic areas in the park have been closed and people that are visiting the park don't stay but a few hours or a day or two and leave. The stench of sulfur is so strong that they literally can't stand the smell.

Yellowstone is what geologists call a "super volcano". There are massive calderas of molten fire beneath Yellowstone National Park. Geologists are saying that every living thing within six hundred miles could be affected in devastation. It could produce an ash cloud that will cover the entire western U.S. clear to the Pacific on the west, British Columbia on the north, the Mexican border on the south, and then out into the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas on the east. Then the cloud could blow east because of the prevailing winds, literally covering the entire nation with volcanic ash.

I believe this to be of great importance to us at this time. The vision is to pray for balance in this area. With our prayers, songs, drums and the ways that we have been instructed in our spiritual teachings, no matter what culture you/we are our hearts make the difference. If Yellowstone National Park seismic activity continues then we could all be affected around the earth. The reports on the seismic activity's spe ak for themselves. The 100 years of government management in the Yellowstone and The Grand Tetons have disallowed our most important prayers and ceremonies to exist as all indigenous tribes in this country. It is now time for us to act as a nation/world within all countries to allow these sacred prayers and ceremonies into the National Parks of Wyoming. Joseph (Hinmaton Yalatkit) 1830-1904, Nez Perce Chief, said, "When ever the white man treats the Indian as they treat each other, then we will have no more wars. We shall all be alike-brothers of one father and one mother, with one sky above us and one county around us, and one government for all." Uniting our tribes of all cultures from the peaks in the Grand Tetons and Yellowstone I s end a strong-hearted message to you to awaken and respond now.

These sacred site areas are calling out to her caretakers all over the world. Now is the time for uniting together and working in harmony. Together our songs, our drums and our prayers speak the ancient language that exits and are remembered in the sacred pictures written on the rocks, in the sacred heartbeat of the land and in the sacred songs heard in the wind. We can bring balance and harmony back to the land remembered by our ancestors of the past, present and future generations.

Our mother is calling out to her caretakers. This is a great opportunity for prayer work in our councils and other groups helping bring the indigenous nations together and with all nations as well.

Yellowstone National Park representative, Rosemary Sucec, has received this message. She is one of the liaison officers that relay messages to the superintendents and other agencies in the parks. She is very interested in bringing indigenous nations and others to do our work there. This Native American perspective has been explained to groups that were from many indigenous nations and other cultures that attended the Lewis and Clark Celebration for Sacagawea's leadership role last May 2003, by others and myself. Because of the reports of Yellowstone's disturbances at this time and its significance they are NOW considering the outcome of our ancestral lands and usage in a decision by the Grand Te ton and Yellowstone National Parks Superintendents.

Today the spirits are calling for good medicine, for us all to awaken with many blessings for all the things we are related to in harmony and balance. We are returning to the sacredness for all living things, for the future of our Mother Earth as part of Creator's creation and within the heavens sacredness, she is helping to bless us all. This is a very important time in our Mother Earth's history for humanities sake. Every thing is related within and upon, what is above is below, heaven upon earth. Chief Seattle's words, "When the last Redman has vanished from the earth and the memory is only a shadow of a cloud moving across; the prairie, these shores and forests will still hold the spirits of my people." We have not vanished but have been reborn to do the work our ancestors did; it is time to step into the moccasins of our ancestors with the wisdom, strength and knowledge at hand. Thank you for your attention, and prayers please respond to:

Bennie E. LeBeau,
Eastern Shoshone Wind River Indian Reservation
Ft. Washakie, Wyoming
2331 Oak Lane
Riverton, Wyoming

307 857-6856

bzahants@hotmail.com or blebeau@Tcinc.net

Great Spirit Bless You,


1-25-04

Earthquake monitors to be reinstalled

JACKSON - An earthquake monitoring network around Jackson Lake that was shut down in 2002 will be reinstalled and operational by the year's end, federal officials said.

Commissioner Bill Paddleford persuaded the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to revive the network in a visit to Washington, D.C., last week.

The missing sensors were a weak link in Teton County's emergency plan, Paddleford said.

"This left a huge hole in our mitigation," he said. "We have to worry about floods, fires, winter storms, seismic volcanic activity and national security stuff. Now the hole will be filled."

The county will use $285,000 from Congress to reinstall the network of earthquake sensors intended to provide critical data in the quake-prone valley and for Jackson Lake Dam, which lies upstream of most of Teton County's population.

The system will be monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey.

FROM: http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2004/01/26/build/wyoming/z-wyoming.inc


http://www.trib.com/AP/wire_detail.php?wire_num=80182

Hotel guests treated for carbon monoxide exposure

msgjac

JACKSON, Wyo. (AP) - Eleven guests of the 49'er Inn and Suites were treated for exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide.

Firefighters determined that the gas escaped from a broken connection in two pipes leading from the motel's boiler beneath the rooms where the victims were staying.

''This could have been potentially fatal,'' said Rusty Palmer, fire marshal for the Jackson/Teton County Fire Department.

In one room, firefighters measured carbon monoxide levels of 300 parts per million; 1,200 parts per million is quickly fatal. Palmer said the level could have been much higher before the measurement.

Matt Shea, of Bozeman, Mont., Kale Paulson, of Portland, Ore., and Brad Kastelitz and Jared Tait, of Spokane, Wash., called the front desk around 10 a.m. Jan. 17 and reported rapid heart rates and feeling dizzy and lightheaded, according to police.

Motel owner Clarene Law said clerk Paul Wagner was unsure why the guests were ill but called 911 in the interest of safety. ''I have such gratitude because we had an astute clerk who made the identification,'' she said Monday.

Some of the affected men were flown by helicopter and others drove to Portneuf Medical Center in Pocatello, Idaho., for treatment in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber.

Workers repaired the broken pipe later in the day.

It is unknown how many people were affected. ''We did have a report that other people in the building had reported flu-like symptoms, which is indicative of carbon monoxide,'' Palmer said.

Law said the break may have been caused by a 5.0-magnitude earthquake that shook Jackson on Jan. 7.

Carbon monoxide poisoning was blamed for the August 2001 death of Dr. David Williams, of Polk County, N.C., at Snake River Lodge and Spa. His wife, Joette, was injured.

Joette Williams sued Vail Resorts, parent company of the lodge, and won a multimillion-dollar judgment.

AP-WS-01-24-04 1319EST

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

<http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?click_id=3&art_id=qw1073468702645B222&set_id=1>

Minor earthquake rattles sleepy Wyoming

January 07 2004 at 11:45AM

Washington - An earthquake with a magnitude of 4.7 rattled Jackson, Wyoming, early on Wednesday, according to a report from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

The tremor, which occurred at 12.51am local time was centred 32km north-east of Jackson in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, said Butch Kinerney, a spokesperson for the USGS.

"It was felt in Jackson," said Kinerney. "A 4.7 is enough to wake people up, but we don't expect any damage. There may be some dishes rattling, that kind of stuff, but it's not enough to do any structural damage."

"It's a resort area, mostly used for skiing," he said, adding that seismic activity was not unusual in the area of Yellowstone National Park, also in Wyoming.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

<http://tv.ksl.com/index.php?nid=5&sid=68275>

Utah Dept. of Public Safety Earthquake Info.

WY Earthquake Serves as Wake Up Call

Jan. 7, 2004

Kimberly Houk Reporting

An earthquake shook northwestern Wyoming early this morning. It registered a 5 on the Richter scale. An earthquake of that magnitude can cause damage, but this one, 19 miles northeast of Jackson Hole, has had its greatest effect as a wake-up call.

Maralin Hoff has been nicknamed the "Earthquake Lady" because it's her job to make sure Utahns are prepared. And the Wyoming shaker gives her another reason to spread the word. She says everyone can start with an Emergency Kit.

Maralin Hoff, Dept. of Public Safety: “Children should have an ER backpack by their bedsides. At your office, your vehicle, home, everywhere you should have a kit. Put a band-aid in your purse. "

Hoff says most things you can find around your home, like a flashlight, clothing, and first aid items. The key is making sure everything is in one place.

Hoff: “It's just wise to have extra food stored at home, water especially. You never know when or if our water system will ever be contaminated."

Hoff says now is the time to get prepared. Wyoming's early morning earthquake was one of 10 earthquakes to shake both Utah and Wyoming since Christmas day. Four of the ten earthquakes were in central Utah near Nephi.

Bob Smith has studied earthquakes for decades. He teaches at the University of Utah and is familiar with the area in Wyoming where the earthquake hit.

Bob Smith, U of U Professor: “This earthquake was felt over an area at least 200 miles long. It was felt from southern Montana clear down to Pocatello, Idaho."

Smith keeps a close eye on the seismic activity of the Wasatch Front. He says although the Wyoming earthquake has no affect on Utah, the Wasatch Front's fault line looks a lot like the Teton Fault line. Another reason why an earthquake 200 miles away hit close to home for people worried about emergency preparation.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

<http://www.casperstartribune.net/articles/2004/01/08/news/wyoming/a7116aab3559e55587256e150004f9ea.txt>

Earthquakes rattle Jackson

By NADIA WHITE

Star-Tribune staff writer

Four earthquakes shook Jackson Hole in the early morning hours Wednesday.

The first temblor at 12:57 a.m. measured 5.0 on the Richter scale, the largest recorded in Teton County history, according to the Wyoming State Geological Society. It was followed by four aftershocks, all centered about 7 miles east of Kelly in the Gros Ventre Range.

Seth Clearman, resident manager of the Red Rock Ranch, near the epicenter of the quake, said the flurry of quakes lasted until about 6:30 a.m.

"The first thing I thought was, 'Where's my kid and cover his head,'" Clearman said. "Books fell off the bookshelves, picture frames came off the wall. Was I scared? No. I was nervous."

He said the quake was bigger than usual and lasted longer, but he knew what it was.

The University of Utah Seismograph Stations and the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center reported the quake was centered east of Kelly and about 3 miles southeast of Lower Slide Lake in the Gros Ventre River valley.

Wednesday's earthquakes come after smaller temblors were reported in Jackson on Dec. 30 and near Newcastle on Sunday.

Wednesday's earthquake in Teton County did not occur on the Teton fault, which is capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 earthquake, according to the USGS.

Jackson resident Tat Maxwell said the first earthquake lasted five or six seconds and started her dogs barking. Aftershocks, she said, awoke her younger children.

"It feels like a really big truck just rambled by on the road next to you, although there are no roads next to you. It's weird. It's eerie," she said.

USGS reported a magnitude 3.7 earthquake occurred at 1:27 a.m., a magnitude 4.1 earthquake occurred at 1:44 a.m., and a magnitude 4.0 earthquake occurred at 2:23 a.m. Wednesday.

Earthquakes are common in Teton County, though much less common in northeastern Wyoming.

Wednesday's earthquakes were not noticeable in Yellowstone National Park, 70 miles north of the epicenter, although more sensitive seismic records have not yet been consulted, park spokeswoman Cheryl Matthews said.

Grand Teton National Park spokeswoman Jackie Skaggs said many park employees felt the quake, but that no damage to park buildings or property, or of avalanches triggered by the quake, had been reported.

Bob Smith, a professor of geophysics at the University of Utah, said people reported feeling Wednesday's quake as far from the epicenter as Cody, Pocatello, Idaho, and southwestern Wyoming. He said earthquakes in the Gros Ventre Range are not uncommon.

As recently as Dec. 30, an earthquake with a magnitude 3.5 occurred in the same area at 11:16 p.m.

In 1925, small earthquakes were reported to have occurred in the same general area as the Wednesday morning quakes and are thought to have played a role in the huge landslide that created Landslide Lake and redirected the Gros Ventre River, according to the Wyoming State Geological Society.

Smith, an expert on seismic activity in Yellowstone, said it is unclear how activity in one area might affect seismic activity on other nearby faults. But he said it does not appear that increased heat and geothermal activity in the Norris Basin this summer is related to tectonic or magma activity, but may instead be due to the drought and dropping water tables.

Newcastle gets a quake, too

On Sunday, residents near Newcastle reported an earthquake that registered 2.1 on the Richter scale just before 8 p.m. Earthquakes are much more unusual in northeastern Wyoming than in northwestern Wyoming, according to state records.

Sharon Fridley said she felt the quake and her husband heard it on their ranch, known locally as the Old Snedecker Place, which has a fenceline on the Wyoming stateline.

"We were just sitting in the living room and I felt the floor start vibrating and rumbling; all the windows started rattling. It lasted for several seconds, and I looked at my husband and we just said, 'What was that?'"

The Fridleys are official weather reporters for western Custer County in South Dakota, so Sharon Fridley called the weather service to report that she thought there'd been an earthquake.

She said the weather service later confirmed the magnitude of the quake and said it was centered 7 miles west of Jewel Cave, near the Wyoming state line.

"We've experienced here on this ranch just about everything now," Sharon Fridley said. "Fires last summer, tornadoes, floods and now an earthquake."

Residents living 15 miles south and west of Newcastle felt the quake as well.

Star-Tribune correspondent Whitney Royster contributed to this report.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

<http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=domesticNews&storyID=4085057>

<http://www.newsday.com/news/nationworld/nation/wire/sns-ap-brf-wyoming-quake,0,6664522.story?coll=sns-ap-nation-headlines>

<http://www.kltv.com/Global/story.asp?S=1590259>

<http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/0107WyomingQuake07-ON.html>

<http://www.ajc.com/news/content/news/ap/ap_story.html/National/AP.V6791.AP-BRF-Wyoming-Qua.html>

<http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-3596013,00.html>


Subj: [earthchanges] s Yellowstone Worse than they say?

Date: 1/15/2004 6:36:14 PM Pacific Standard Time

http://www.unknowncountry.com/news/?id=3474

Is Yellowstone Worse Than They Say?

14-Jan-2004

The U.S. Geological Service and the media have been super- conservative with their warnings about the Yellowstone supervolcano. But evidence is accumulating that the park is in big trouble because the vast volcanic region beneath its surface could be on a fast track to eruption. One source says, "The American people are not being told that the explosion of this 'super volcano' could happen at any moment. When Yellowstone does blow, some geologists predict that every living thing within six hundred miles is likely to die." The Idaho Observer reports that recent eruptions, 200 degree ground temperatures, bulging magma and 84 degree water temperatures are worrying scientists who are studying the area. Yellowstone National Park is on top of one of the largest "super volcanoes" in the world, with a regular eruption cycle of 600,000 years. The last eruption was 640,000 years ago-meaning the next one is long overdue, and it could be 2,500 times the size of the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption.

Rangers have closed part of the park because of land deformation and high ground temperatures. Visitors are complaining about the stench of sulfur. Everything in the area of the bulge is dying, including trees, flowers, grass and shrubs. Even animals are leaving. Dead fish are floating in Yellowstone Lake.

The Observer reports that "The irony of all this is the silence by the news media and our government. Very little information is available from Yellowstone personnel or publications. What mainstream news stories do appear underscore the likelihood of a massive volcanic eruption."

So when's Yellowstone going to blow? Do the numbers.


Minor earthquake rattles sleepy Wyoming

January 07 2004 at 11:45AM

Washington - An earthquake with a magnitude of 4.7 rattled Jackson, Wyoming, early on Wednesday, according to a report from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

The tremor, which occurred at 12.51am local time was centred 32km north-east of Jackson in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, said Butch Kinerney, a spokesperson for the USGS.

"It was felt in Jackson," said Kinerney. "A 4.7 is enough to wake people up, but we don't expect any damage. There may be some dishes rattling, that kind of stuff, but it's not enough to do any structural damage."

"It's a resort area, mostly used for skiing," he said, adding that seismic activity was not unusual in the area of Yellowstone National Park, also in Wyoming.


An Eye Witness Report On Yellowstone

12-31-03

I have recently received an email from George Shaffer, a visionary whom I've had on the show. He constructed a future map of the United States. George has recently become alarmed with the Yellowstone super-volcano area. I am posting his email below.

Mitch,

I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your web site and the time and effort it must take to keep it active. Many of your viewpoints and thoughts are very similar to mine and therefore it makes it an enjoyable read. You had asked earlier for those that had visited Yellowstone National Park to drop you an e-mail and state what we observed and think about that area.

The wife and I had visited Yellowstone several times in the past but this visit (mid September) was going to be just a little different. I had recently had a vision that many parts of the Western USA and Western Canada would become uninhabitable due to a catastrophic event. I clearly saw the affected area in a tan color which indicated those places that would be mostly affected. I have these areas posted on my earth change page and can be viewed by anyone who is interested
( http://www.bright.net/~gshaffer/earthchange.htm ).

During this vision I had a strong indication that the trouble spot was Yellowstone National Park. We traveled there so that I might be able to meditate and receive more information. I am sorry to say that I did not receive any more information. Yellowstone National Park was as beautiful as ever. There were parts of the park that were off limits because of increased activity but the parts that we went to really did not look much different than they did before. The indication I received, at the time of my vision, was that this eruption would soon occur but we must keep in mind, geologically speaking, 200 years is just a snap of the fingers. I am a firm believer that we humans get prophecy because we can do something about it. If we were to get prophecy and would not be able to do anything about it, it would just make us paranoid. We as humans, along with our positive thoughts, can delay or even change prophecy.

I have rambled on long enough and please feel free to use this e-mail anyway you like. I take this opportunity to thank you again for producing a very fine web site. I visit your web site often and like to go to the future map area (to check for changes).

ECTV Future Maps Page: http://www.earthchangestv.com/maps/

George Shaffer's Map: http://www.earthchangestv.com/maps/shaffer.gif

George's Email: mailto:gshaffer@bright.net


Second Man Accused of Damaging Yellowstone

Saturday November 22, 2003 8:46 PM

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. (AP) - A second man has been charged over damage to a geyser area at Yellowstone National Park, accused of not stopping a friend who drove his truck in circles on the geyser's fragile soil before getting stuck.

Austin B. Olsen, 19, of Battle Ground, Wash., was charged Wednesday with aiding and abetting Adam R. Elford, 22, of Vancouver, Wash., in the Oct. 10 incident.

Elford was cited last month for driving off-road, damaging park resources, having a loaded gun in his truck, improper food storage and driving on a suspended license.

Investigators allege Olsen was accompanying Elford, who they say drove his pickup truck around two barriers and spun ``doughnuts'' on fragile soil known as sinter surrounding Lone Star Geyser before getting stuck.

The next morning, the two men asked two visitors for help, but were unable to free the vehicle. They eventually went to the Old Faithful ranger station.

The U.S. attorney's office is reviewing the case to determine if felony charges will be filed.

Workers have spent more than 80 hours trying to repair the damage.


Subject: Message to All Peacemakers i.e. Tetons & Yellowstone from Bennie LeBeau, Eastern Shoshone, Wind River Reservation

Our Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are calling for our prayers.

Many of you understand the relationship of the energy grid lines of heaven and earth and its relationship with this next eclipse." They are like to the nervous system of your bodies and its wiring system.

Earth Mother is being stressed out by bad vibrations and some of us as well.

With this increasing solar activity, so it is with Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks sacred sites that are asking for help. We have come together because our hearts are responding for a change. This changeis necessary for the survival of our home planet Earth, our Mother. It is time to forgive and forget and move forward into sacredness. The words thathave been given in prophecy by the Hopi, they have said, "We are the people we have beenwaiting for."

I am Bennie LeBeau from the Eastern Shoshone Nation in Wyoming. I am also a member of the Council of The Spiritual Elders of Mother Earth. I believe many of you may remember what we are representing as Eastern Shoshone peoples in the Grand Teton and the Yellowstone NationalParks. This is part of our original homelands written in our treaty as a sovereign country and that our cultural traditions would not be forgotten in order to utilizethese sacred sites areas. Since September of 1999, we have been attempting to gain permission for our most sacred ceremony the Sundance and other ceremonies to be allowed in the Grand Tetons and Yellowstone Park, along with many other Indigenous Nations of this country. The park officials and the general public are beginning to see the significance of why it is needed. Now it is most evident because of the seismic volcanic activity inand around the Grand Teton and the Yellowstone National Parks. What we have helped escalate as humans is the disturbance to the web of life on earth in these sacred site areas.

Remembering the words from the past by a powerful messenger, Chief Seattle stated, "Whatever befalls the earth, befalls the sons of earth...the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth...all things are connected...man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it...whatever he does to the web, he does to himself."

On October 22, 2003 a message stated in July that the Yellowstone Park rangers closed the entire Norris Geyer Basin because of the deformation of the land and the excess temperature. There is an area there that is 28 miles long and 7 miles wide that has bulged upward over five inches since 1996. This year the ground temperature on that budge has reached over 200 degrees. There was no choice but to close off the whole area. Everything in that area is dying. The trees, flowers, and grasses resemble a dead zone and are spreading outward. The animals are literally migrating out of the park. This isn´t hearsay. It is coming from people who have actually visited the park in the last few weeks. The later part of July, one of the park geologists discovered a huge bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake.

The bulge has already risen over 100 feet from the bottom of the lake. The water temperature at the surface of the bulge has reached 88 degrees and is still rising. Keep in mind that Yellowstone Lake is a high mountain lake with a very cold-water temperature

The lake is now closed to the public. It is filled with dead fish floating everywhere. The same is true of the Yellowstone River and most of the steams in the park. Dead and dying fish are filling the water everywhere. Many picnic areas in the park have been closed and people that are visiting the park don´t stay but a few hours or a day ortwo and leave. The stench of sulfur is so strong that they literally can´t stand the smell. Yellowstone is what geologists call a "super volcano".

There are massive calderas of molten fire beneath Yellowstone National Park.Geologists are saying that every living thing within six hundred miles could be affected in devastation. It could produce an ash cloud that will cover the entire western U.S. clear to the Pacific on the west, British Columbia on the north, the Mexican border on the south, and then out into the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas on the east. Then the cloud could blow east because of the prevailing winds, literally covering the entire nation with volcanic ash.

I believe this to be of great importance to us at this time. The vision is to pray for balance in this area. With our prayers, songs, drums and the ways that we have been instructed in our spiritual teachings, no matter what culture you/we are our hearts make the difference. If Yellowstone National Park seismic activity continues then we could all be affected around the earth? The reports on the seismic activity´s speak for themselves. The 100 years of government management in the Yellowstone and The Grand Tetons havedisallowed our most important prayers and ceremonies to exist as allindigenous tribes in this country. It is now time for us to act as a nation/world within all countries to allow these sacred prayers and ceremonies into the National Parks of Wyoming. Joseph (Hinmaton Yalatkit) 1830-1904, Nez Perce Chief, said, "When ever the white man treats the Indian as they treat each other, then we will have no more wars

We shall all be alike-brothers of one father and one mother, with one sky above us and one county around us, and one government for all."

Uniting our tribes of all cultures from the peaks in the Grand Tetons and Yellowstone I send a strong-hearted message to you to awaken and respond now. These sacred site areas are calling out to her caretakers all over the world. Now is the time for uniting together and working in harmony. Together our songs, our drums and our prayers speak the ancient language that exits and are remembered in the sacred pictures written on the rocks, in the sacred heartbeat of the land and in the sacred songs heard in the wind.

We can bring balance and harmony back to the land remembered by our ancestors of the past, present and future generations. Our mother is calling out to her caretakers. This is a great opportunity for prayer work in our councils and other groups helping bring the indigenous nations together and with all nations as well. Yellowstone National Park representative Rosemary Sucec has received this message. She is one of the liaison officers that relay messages to the superintendents and other agencies in the parks. She is very interested in bringing indigenous nations and others to do our work there. This Native American perspective has been explained to groups that were from many indigenous nations and other cultures that attended the Lewis and Clark Celebration for Sacagawea´s leadership role last May 2003, by others and myself. Because of the reports of Yellowstone´s disturbances at this time and its significance they are NOW considering the outcome of our ancestral lands and usage in a decision by the Grand Teton and Yellowstone

National Parks Superintendents.

Today the spirits are calling for good medicine, for us all to awaken; with many blessings for all the things we are related to in harmony and balance. We are returning to the sacredness for all living things, for the future of our Mother Earth as part of creator´s creation and within the heavens sacredness, she is helping to bless us all. This is a very important time in our mother earth´s history for humanities sake. Every thing is related within and upon, what is above is below, heaven upon earth. Chief Seattle´s words, "When the last Redman has vanished from the earth and the memory is only a shadow of a cloud moving across the prairie, these shores and forests will still hold the spirits of my people." We have not vanished but have been reborn to do the work our ancestors did; it is time to step into the moccasins of our ancestors with the wisdom, strength and knowledge at hand.

Thank you for your attention, and prayers please respond to:

Bennie E. LeBeau, Eastern Shoshone
Wind River Indian Reservation
Ft. Washakie, Wyoming
2331 Oak Lane
Riverton, Wyoming
307 857-6856


Coastal Features Around Yellowstone Lake

SHORELINE SANDBARS YELLOWSTONE GEOLOGY COASTAL EROSION AR

On a recent family trip to Yellowstone Park, a geologist noted that parts of the shoreline on Yellowstone Lake sport features more commonly seen on coastal areas. With subsequent research and historical photos, he has shown that the lake's shoreline has changed dramatically over the past 50 years.

Newswise — On a recent family trip to Yellowstone Park, University of Arkansas geologist Stephen Boss noted that parts of the shoreline on Yellowstone Lake sport features more commonly seen on coastal areas. With subsequent research and historical photos, Boss has shown that the lake's shoreline has changed dramatically over the past 50 years.

Studying the coastal processes of this sparsely developed lake could provide insight into the natural processes that shape coastal shorelines and assist the National Park Service in developing long-term management plans to preserve the pristine lake shoreline and the abundant archaeological sites found there.

Boss and Barbara Pickup, graduate student in the environmental dynamics program, reported their findings at the Geological Society of America meeting in Seattle.

Yellowstone Lake is the largest lake at its altitude in the world, and formed in an enormous crater following an extraordinarily violent series of volcanic eruptions. Geologists call such craters "calderas," and part of the Yellowstone Caldera later filled with melted glacier water to form Yellowstone Lake. Such lakes typically have steep slopes that continue under water and rapidly become very deep. However, on a family trip to Yellowstone Lake this summer Boss, who studies coastal processes of shorelines, noted that parts of the lake have landforms found in coastal areas, including sand bars, lagoons and spits. Upon returning to work, Boss began looking for any research on the lake’s shoreline.

"No one has examined the details of shoreline processes that are going on there right now," Boss said.

Boss and Pickup ordered aerial photographs of Yellowstone Lake from the U.S. Geological Survey Data Center in Sioux Falls, S.D. that date back to 1954. They focused in particular on West Thumb, located in the northwest part of the lake. They are in the process of entering the photographs into state-of-the-art Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to analyze shoreline changes. An overlay of images from 1994 and 2002 shows visible differences in the shoreline in only eight years.

"Through time, you can see the shoreline change," said Pickup.

Although sandbars, spits and lagoons traditionally are associated with marine coastal ecosystems, large lakes, such as the Great Lakes, also form such features through wave action and sediment transport. Yellowstone Lake differs from the Great Lakes and the coast because it is an alpine, high altitude lake and because it has very little development on its shoreline.

"We’re looking at physical processes that operate without significant human interference of any kind," Boss said.

Boss and Pickup hope to return to Yellowstone Lake to study these formations and chart their stability and erosion patterns.

"That could help determine where to locate park infrastructure and how best to manage the area as a resource for people to enjoy," Boss said. Detailed studies of these features also could lead to better understanding of the geologic history of lake level variations that may be related to inflation and deflation of the caldera as magma moves beneath the surface of Yellowstone National Park.

© 2003 Newswise. All Rights Reserved.


Geologists monitor activity under Yellowstone Lake

Written by: Chris Vanderveen, 9NEWS Reporter

Posted by: Paola Farer, Web Producer created: 11/7/2003

9NEWS reporter Chris Vanderveen and Photojournalist Ken Mostek take a look at the increased activity at Yellowstone Lake, Nov. 6, 2003.

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. - Every 600,000 years or so, a super volcano has erupted in the area we now know as Yellowstone National Park.

It’s been 640,000 years since the last major eruption. 9NEWS Reporter Chris Vanderveen and photojournalist Ken Mostek show us, some strange activity at the park now have scientists asking, is the area due.

"I always pinch myself, I get paid to do this," said Lisa Morgan during a recent hike through the park.

Morgan's “office” is the highest alpine lake in North America, Yellowstone Lake, home to the occasional family of trumpeter swans and herds of buffalo.

Morgan works for the U.S. Geological Survey. Her team has developed a map of the lake's floor, the most detailed to date, and what they've found is a very active lake bottom.

"The floor of Yellowstone Lake is anything but quiet," she said after taking the most recent temperature reading in a nearby field of sand, and grass and rock.

Morgan says that in the northern section of the lake, a 100-foot bulge, as big as a 10- story building is forming.

The Norris Geyser basin, the most active thermal basin in the park, has also been very active. The Steamboat geyser has erupted six times in the past three years, including three eruptions already this year. Between 1991 and 2000 there were no eruptions.

This summer, park officials closed some nearby trails as a precaution. One trail remains closed.

Despite this recent activity, Morgan said she isn’t expecting another major volcanic eruption at this time. She said the last eruption was about 10,000 time greater than the Mount Saint Helens eruption. Another eruption on a similar scale would kill all life within a 600-mile radius, which includes the city of Denver.

"No I don't think an explosion is imminent," said Morgan. She said that the bulge under the lake, at worst, would form a crater the size of a pond.

Morgan said one theory about the latest activity under the lake is that it has been fueled by the drought. Less precipitation has prompted the water underneath the area to heat to abnormally high levels.

(Copyright 2003 by 9NEWS KUSA-TV. All Rights Reserved)


YELLOWSTONE roads closed until winter season

Cody Enterprise, WY

<http://www.codyenterprise.com/articles/2003/11/03/sports/sports2.txt>

Yellowstone roads closed until winter season

Yellowstone Park roads closed for the season at 8 a.m. Monday.

The closure will allow snow to accumulate in preparation for the winter season.

The exception is the road from the North Entrance at Gardiner, Mont., to the Northeast Entrance at Cooke City, Mont., which remains open year-round to automobile travel. This road is subject to temporary closures, and chains or snow tires may be required at times because of hazardous winter driving conditions.

The fishing season in Yellowstone also closed at 10 p.m. Sunday throughout the park, superintendent Suzanne Lewis said.

Roads are scheduled to reopen - depending on sufficient snowpack - for the winter season to over-snow vehicles at 7 a.m. Wednesday, Dec. 17.

Several changes will be implemented this winter.

Everyone entering the park by snowmobile must have a snowmobile entrance reservation, and a total of only 950 snowmobiles will be allowed in the park each day.

For those traveling with a commercial guide (80 percent of all snowmobile entries will commercially guided), reservations will be made through that company.

Anyone traveling independently and operating a personal or rented snowmobile must make a snowmobile entrance reservation by calling Xanterra Parks and Resorts (307) 344-7311.

There is a charge for the snowmobile entrance reservation, and visitors also will be required to pay the park entrance fee.

All commercially guided operators will be required to use snowmobiles that meet the park's best available technology (BAT) requirements. For non-commercially guided machines, BAT snowmobiles are not required this winter.

All snowmobile operators must have a valid state driver's license; no learner's permits are allowed.

Groomed roads will begin to close to over-snow vehicle use at 9 p.m. Sunday, March 7, 2004, with the closure of the Mammoth to Norris road. The next morning the roads from Norris Junction to Madison Junction and Norris Junction to Canyon will close. All remaining groomed roads will close to over-snow vehicle use at 9 p.m. on Sunday, March 14.

Non-motorized travel in the form of bicycle roller blades and roller skis will be allowed this fall as long as weather permits. Specific information on these types of activities be obtained by contacting the park.

Travelers should contact park headquarters at (307) 344-7381 for current road and weather conditions.

For more information on visiting the park during the winter, including the park's 2003-2004 Winter Trip Planner, visit www.nps.gov/yell/planvisit/winteruse/index.htm or call (307) 344-7381.

CWD discovered in basin

The first case of chronic wasting disease in the Big Horn Basin was recently confirmed.


SENATE passes $19.7B Interior budget

Billings Gazette, MT

... The bill includes nearly $6 million for restoration of the Old House at Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. It also includes ...

<http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2003/11/04/build/state/54-budget.inc>


'HE seemed to come almost straight down'

Cody Enterprise, WY

The investigation into Wednesday's fatal crash of a Federal Express plane trying to land at Yellowstone Regional Airport could take six months.

...<http://www.codyenterprise.com/articles/2003/11/03/news/news1.txt>

By CAROLE CLOUDWALKER

The investigation into Wednesday's fatal crash of a Federal Express plane trying to land at Yellowstone Regional Airport could take six months.

But Mike Becker, manager of Yellowstone Regional Airport, says YRA is just as safe as it was before the accident, and there is no need for airline passengers or others to fear for their safety.

"Passengers shouldn't feel frightened on flights in or out of Cody," Becker said Monday. "The airport is as safe as it ever was."

The cause of the accident that claimed the life of pilot Donald Rhodes, 37, of Casper will be uncertain, at least until the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) completes its investigation, Becker said.

The plane that crashed at 8:53 a.m. Oct. 29 was a Cessna Grand Caravan 208 single engine turbo-prop operated by FedEx. That airplane features de-icing equipment in its wings. The plane was owned by Corporate Air of Billings.

The plane was on final approach to the airport when it struck the Greybull Highway and skidded into Alkali Lake, coming to rest on its top.

The aircraft was on a routine daily flight from Casper to Cody, and was about half full of packages and letters, according to reports from FedEx and the Cody Police Department.

"The plane was half full, weight-wise," said Kevin Smith, operations manager for FedEx in Cody.

A snow squall swept through the area as the plane approached YRA. Weather conditions generally were poor, and officials speculate that because of that, Rhodes probably was making an instrument landing.

The NTSB completed its on-site investigation Friday, Becker said. The aircraft was trucked to Colorado, and parts may be taken to various destinations for further investigation, he added. A team of investigators from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) also was in Cody to investigate the crash.

The pilot, who was the only person on board, is thought to have died upon impact with the highway.

Rhodes had been a commercial pilot for more than 10 years. He graduated from Colorado Northwestern Community College in Rangely, Colo., in 1985 with an A.S. in aviation technology. He had flown for FedEx, Rio Grande Aviation and Airborne Express.

He and his family lived in Casper for the past six years. A memorial service for Mr. Rhodes will be at 2 p.m. Tuesday in the chapel of Bustard's Funeral Home in Casper.

'He seemed to come almost straight down'

The investigation into Wednesday's fatal crash of a Federal Express plane trying to land at Yellowstone Regional Airport could take six months.


E. gate will be closed nights

Road construction plans call for Yellowstone Park's east gate to be closed every night for the next two summers.

By BUZZY HASSRICK

Road construction plans call for Yellowstone Park's east gate to be closed every night for the next two summers.

For 2004 and 2005 the Sylvan Pass-East Entrance road also will be open for only two four-hour "windows" for most of September and closed completely for most of October.

The road, however, will be open with no delays for the long Memorial Day, Fourth of July and Labor Day weekends in 2004 and '05.

The looming three-year road project is causing concern among Cody merchants.

"They're all jumpy about it," said chamber director Gene Bryan, who has been fielding calls this fall about the future project. "We've been through it (road construction) before, but we've just had a couple of decent years."

To soften the impact, the chamber's Transportation Committee has participated in drafting the road-work schedule.

"I think it's fair," Bryan said of the timetable. "It's got to happen."

The weather and altitude of the project area mean Sylvan Pass will be an "enormous challenge," he added.

The contract is expected to be awarded this winter with construction to start on the first phase of the three-phase project in spring 2004. Each phase is scheduled for one year.

The first 6-mile segment starts on the east side of Sylvan Pass and continues toward the East Entrance.

After that bid is let, the chamber will meet with the contractor and travel groups like AAA about providing information to travelers, Bryan said.

"It's a fine line about how much to say," he said. "Road construction is a fact of life.

"We must be honest but don't want to scare off people."

Complicating the promotion to tourists of Cody's so-called "second entrance to Yellowstone" - the Northeast Entrance at Cooke City - is the plan for an unrelated YNP road project to close Dunraven Pass all summer in 2004. That means tourists in the park can reach the northeast gate only via Mammoth Hot Springs.

(Original plans called for Dunraven Pass to be closed all summer in 2003, but a glitch in the bidding process delayed the beginning of construction and allowed the road to remain open.)

The 2004 schedule for the Sylvan Pass project includes these dates:

May 7-31: Road will be open with 30-minute delays.

May 31-Sept. 6: Road will be open 8 a.m.-8 p.m. with 30-minutes delays, and closed 8 p.m.-8 a.m. to allow a full shift of overnight work.

Sept. 7-Oct 3: Road will be open 6-10 a.m. and 6-10 p.m. with no delays.

Oct. 3: Road will close at 10 p.m. and remain closed to all travel for the season.

Road will be open with no delays on three holiday weekends: 6 p.m. May 28 to 6 a.m. June 1; 6 p.m. July 2 to 6 p.m. July 5; and 6 p.m. Sept. 3 to 6 a.m. Sept. 7.


SCAVENGERS benefit by dining with the wolves, find new UC ... UC Berkeley (press release), CA

... of the grey wolf, one of the largest, most efficient predators in North America and the subject of controversy when it was reintroduced to Yellowstone National ...

<http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2003/11/04_wolves.shtml>


Geyser area damaged, officials say

Gazette Wyoming Bureau

10-29-03

A man from Vancouver, Wash., is facing numerous federal charges after he illegally drove into the Lone Star geyser area at Yellowstone National Park and caused significant damage.

Adam Roy Elford, 22, drove his Toyota Tacoma pickup around a locked barricade at the Lone Star parking lot, down the 2.5-mile trail to the geyser and then around the geyser's cone and into a surrounding meadow, park officials said Tuesday.

Elford has been charged with operating a vehicle off road, injuring mineral resources, possession of a loaded firearm in a motor vehicle, improper food storage and operating a motor vehicle with a suspended driver's license.

The incident started on the evening of Oct. 10, when Elford and a companion arrived at the Lone Star parking lot, about five miles south of Old Faithful.

Park officials said Elford drove around the locked gate and onto the asphalt trail that's reserved for bicyclists and pedestrians.

At the end of the trail, Elford and his companion moved a log barrier and drove around the cone of the geyser and into a nearby meadow before getting stuck in soft soil, the Park Service said. The pair then set up camp, started a fire and spent the night.

The next morning, Elford and his companion walked to Old Faithful, where they persuaded a couple to help them. But when they got to Lone Star, the couple "realized the gravity of the situation," refused to help and drove back to Old Faithful, park officials said. Elford and his companion then reported the incident at the Old Faithful Ranger Station.

Park rangers went to Lone Star, investigated the scene, then took Elford into custody and transported him to the jail in West Yellowstone, Mont.

His friend, whose name has not been released, was not arrested but was cited for his part in the damage to the park's resources.

Elford made his initial appearance in federal court Oct. 13 and was released on $5,000 bond.

Park officials are still assessing the damage at Lone Star, which includes tire tracks around the geyser and through the meadow.

The U.S. attorney's office in Cheyenne will seek full restitution from Elford and his companion for all restoration costs, park officials said.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


Yellowstone:Steamboat erupts for 4th time in 18 months

From: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/news/item.php?keyid=6565&category=1

The Billings Gazette

October 27, 2003

Steamboat erupts for 4th time in 18 months

By MIKE STARK

Gazette Wyoming Bureau

The roar of the water and steam was unmistakable.

A law-enforcement ranger living near Norris Geyser Basin heard it Wednesday evening and quickly called the communications office at Yellowstone National Park headquarters.

News spread quickly that, for the third time this year, the largest geyser in the world was erupting.

Steamboat geyser, one of the most celebrated and wildly unpredictable geysers in the park, put on a show for the few people who were there to see it.

Henry Heasler, Yellowstone´s lead geologist, got to Norris around 9 p.m. in time to see Steamboat roiling loudly in the vigorous steam phase that follows an eruption of water.

"It was a crystal clear night," Heasler said. "It was very awesome to be in such a quiet, peaceful place and hear and feel this very powerful low roar."

When Heasler and several others returned to Steamboat Thursday evening, the geyser was still spouting a thick cloud of steam high into the sky. He estimated the plume was 350 to 500 feet high.

"It was impressive," Heasler said.

Park scientists have yet to determine how high the eruption went or how much water it released. That information will be drawn from measurements taken at Norris and compiled over the next week or so.

Anytime Steamboat erupts, it´s a special event in Yellowstone.

And it´s been happening more frequently lately.

The geyser, which has had intervals ranging from four days to 50 years, has had more major eruptions in the 21st century than any time since the early 1980s. The geyser fell silent from 1991 until May of 2000. Since then, it has erupted five times: April 2002, September 2002, March 2003, April 2003 and on Wednesday.

During a typical eruption at Steamboat - if there is such a thing - water can shoot hundreds of feet into the air for 20 to 40 minutes, followed by a long steam phase.

More about Steamboat Geyser

Throughout the summer, Steamboat had frequent minor eruptions spewing water and steam, but there was nothing that tipped off geologists that Steamboat would burst into a major eruption this week.

Heasler said he was looking at Steamboat on Tuesday and saw that an unusual amount of steam was flowing out during a minor eruption.

"But there were no seismic precursors or anything like that," Heasler said.

Water and temperature instruments near Steamboat show that the eruption happened at 8:25 or 8:26 p.m. Wednesday.

When Heasler arrived about a half-hour later, a cool mist was falling on Norris Geyser Basin from the hot water that had been expelled hundreds of feet into the air, cooled and was falling back to earth.

"As I was walking toward it, there was the large, deep roaring sound and occasionally you could feel it in the ground," Heasler said.

With the steam phase in full gear, witnesses on the nearby boardwalk had to shout to be heard. Meanwhile, a fine layer of gray silica coated the walkway and fogged visitors´ glasses.

As the air temperature cooled, the water on the boardwalk froze during the night, prompting park officials to close the boardwalk for safety.

"It was a sheet of ice and very treacherous," Heasler said.

The boardwalk reopened after the ice melted in the sunlight.

The latest eruption at Steamboat may help scientists unravel some of the mysteries behind its sporadic behavior.

In February, geologists placed two gauges on the boardwalk at Norris to measure water flow and temperature. Another is attached along Tantalus Creek, which drains about 97 percent of the water from the basin to Gibbon River.

Over the winter, Heasler and other geologists will look at the data they´ve collected to see if any patterns emerge that are associated with an eruption at Steamboat.

"It´s not to make predictions but to see what it´s telling us about how Steamboat works and how Norris works," Heasler said.

Norris is the hottest geyser basin in Yellowstone. Geologists studying the area don´t have a clear understanding of the subterranean system where heated water churns in a complex network of plumbing.

But they do know that when Steamboat erupts, nearby Cistern Spring empties and takes a few days to fill up again. Heasler and others are wondering whether Steamboat has other effects at Norris that aren´t so easy to spot.

"Maybe there are a lot more subtle influences of Steamboat eruptions around the whole basin," he said. "There´s a tremendous amount of heat, water and pressure in that area."

There are other mysteries at Norris that may or may not be connected, including rising temperatures in the basin that got so hot this summer that certain portions had to be temporarily closed to the public earlier this year.

Geologists will spend years trying to figure out how it all works. But Heasler, who missed some of the previous action at Steamboat, couldn´t resist simply basking in the glow of having had the opportunity to witness a rare and spectacular event at Yellowstone.

"It did inspire awe," he said.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


Scientists find major mercury emissions in Yellowstone

By MIKE STARK

Gazette Wyoming Bureau

The hissing and huffing hillsides of Roaring Mountain in Yellowstone National Park are doing more than just blowing off a little steam.

Scientists measuring mercury levels in the park last month were stunned by what they found near the base of the mountain: probably the highest levels of mercury at an undisturbed natural area that has ever been recorded scientifically.

"I looked at it and did a double take," Mike Abbott, a scientist with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, said Tuesday. "I thought my instrument was busted."

Abbott said several areas between Mammoth and Norris Geyser Basin showed "fairly high" levels of mercury, which is a highly toxic pollutant often associated with volcanic areas.

That information is helping scientists answer a crucial question about Yellowstone: whether the park is an important contributor of mercury in the atmosphere.

The research plays into a larger national issue as the federal government works to regulate mercury emissions from industrial sources such as coal-fired power plants. If places like Yellowstone contribute significant amounts of mercury to the air, one theory goes, then regulations on man-made sources may not be as effective as once thought.

Although man-made mercury emissions are pretty well understood, not much is known about natural emissions.

But after their research this fall, scientists have a better grasp on the role that Yellowstone might play.

"In my mind, it's a potentially big source," Abbott said.

Preliminary estimates from measurements taken in Yellowstone in early September seemed to indicate relatively low levels of mercury. But data collected later in the month, and made public Tuesday, showed otherwise.

Judging by what was measured at Roaring Mountain and other nearby spots in the park, Abbott said it's conceivable -- though highly speculative at this point, he emphasized -- that Yellowstone Park could emit as much mercury as all the coal-fired power plants in Wyoming.

"That's not a real estimate but something based on just a few measurements," Abbott said. "It could even be bigger than that, we just don't know."

Several places in Yellowstone showed signs of mercury in the air at levels higher than background levels at locations not associated with volcanic activity, mining operations, power plants or other known sources.

But it's the corridor between Mammoth and Norris that has piqued the curiosity of researchers.

Abbott said one possibility seems to be that the higher-than-expected levels of mercury along that stretch might be associated with the acidic sulfate system in that area.

Places like Norris basin, Frying Pan Spring and Roaring Mountain seem to point to a connection between the mercury levels and acid sulfate features.

"We haven't gotten it figured out yet but there seems to be some significant sources there," Abbott said.

At Roaring Mountain, Abbott measured mercury emanating from the clay hillside at up to 2,400 nanograms per square meter per hour, significantly higher than measurements of 200-700 at other sites in the Norris-Mammoth corridor. By comparison, background levels away from geothermal areas range from zero to 10.

more on mercury

Abbott said he was shocked by the measurements at Roaring Mountain and returned to Yellowstone last week to double-check his figures.

"It knocked me over," he said, adding that he's never seen numbers so high for a natural area that hasn't been mined. "It's one of the highest, if not the highest, ever measured."

Abbott said the mercury from Yellowstone poses no danger to visitors.

But, he said, measurements were only taken at a select number of sites. The unusually high level of mercury raises tantalizing questions about total mercury emissions at Yellowstone, Abbott said.

"Yellowstone is a large area. Now that we know where to look, we'd like to do more detailed measurements to produce a reasonably accurate estimate of total emissions," he said.

Once that happens, federal regulators will have a better idea of how much mercury is emitted by natural sources and how much comes from man-made operations.

In December 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency announced that it would require coal-fired power plants, considered to be the largest source of mercury emissions in the country, to reduce their discharge of the toxic metal.

Mercury from power plants often settles over rivers, lakes and other waterways and can contaminate fish, according to the EPA. When people eat contaminated fish, especially those with high levels of the chemical, they are at a higher risk of neurological and developmental damage, particularly in children and developing fetuses, the agency says.

The amount of mercury in the air has been rising in the last century. About 158 tons of mercury is emitted into the air each year, according to government officials.

No one's sure exactly how mercury moves in the atmosphere and it can be difficult to pinpoint where it comes from without intensive testing.

Until now, no one had tried to quantify Yellowstone's contributions.

Abbott said he's hoping INEEL and other researchers, including the U.S. Geological Survey and several universities, will be able to get funding to take a more comprehensive look at Yellowstone's emissions.

"That's going to be a big job," he said.

Copyright © The Billings Gazette, a division of Lee Enterprises.


Subj: YELLOWSTONE  - Personal Report of a Visitor - 10 - 14 -03
Date: 10/14/2003 9:05:23 PM Pacific Daylight Time
From: G
To: Dee777

WE ARE HOME FROM OUR QUICK TRIP TO YELLOWSTONE.

WE WANT YOU TO KNOW THE FOLLOWING COMMENTS ARE OUR OWN AND BASED ON WHAT WE HAVE READ IN THE PAST, OBSERVED, AND OUR INTUITIVE FEELINGS. BOTH NANCY AND I, COMBINED, HAVE VISITED YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK FOURTEEN (14) TIMES OVER THE PAST 60 YEARS. SOME OF THESE TRIPS WERE TOGETHER; SOME APART. OUR MORE RECENT TRIPS BEGAN IN 1988 WHERE WE WERE AMONG THE LAST CARS TO ENTER THE SOUTH END BEFORE THE ROADS WERE CLOSED DUE TO THE FIRE. THE PARK WAS AGAIN VISITED IN 1995, 1997 AND 2001 IN ADDITION TO THIS ONE IN OCTOBER 2003.

I MUST SAY THAT OVER THE YEARS THE ACTIVITY HAS PICKED UP, BUT WE FEEL MUCH OF THAT IS DUE TO BETTER ROADS, NEW AND IMPROVED BOARDWALKS AND GREATER AREAS MADE MORE ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. WE HAVE ALSO BEEN IMPRESSED BY THE INCREASE IN GEYSER ACTIVITY TO THE WEST OF OLD FAITHFUL AND THE ONGOING CHANGES AT MAMMOUTH HOT SPRINGS.

WE SPECIFICALLY SPENT MORE TIME AT THE NORRIS GEYSER BASIN THIS TRIP WHERE OTHERS HAD EXPRESSED CONCERNS AS TO THE CLOSING OF THE BOARDWALK BETWEEN GREEN DRAGON AND PORKCHOP GEYSERS. I SPENT A LOT OF TIME OBSERVING STEAMBOAT GEYSER, WHICH IS THE TALLEST GEYSER IN THE WORLD WITH ERUPTIONS UP TO 300 FEET. IT ERUPTS EVERY 4 - 50 YRS BUT IN THE PAST 2 YRS IT HAS ERUPTED TWICE EACH YEAR; THE LAST ERUPTION WAS APRIL 29TH.

I MEDITATED AND FELT THE GROUND FOR SOME TIME AS NANCY MADE THE ROUNDS ON VARIOUS TRAILS IN THE AREA. I DID NOTE ABOUT 12-20 SMALL, RECENT GROWTH TREES, 4-6 FEET HIGH, DYING ON THE UPHILL SIDE OF STEAMBOAT GEYSER. THE DIAMETER OF THIS IMMEDIATE AREA IS ACTUALLY QUITE SMALL, MAYBE 50 FEET OR LESS. THIS IS SMALL WHEN COMPARING OTHER GEYSERS AND PROBABLY DUE TO ITS INFREQUENT ERUPTIONS. THIS GEYSER BOILS CONTINOUSLY SENDING WATER A FEW FEET TO 30 FEET IN THE AIR IN ABOUT A 10-FOOT DIAMETER AREA. I HAD NO -- FEELINGS OF DANGER, DOOM OR APREHENSION IN THIS AREA!

NANCY HAD SIMILAR FEELINGS ALTHOUGH WAS A BIT TIRED AFTER HER LONG, EXPLORATORY WALK FROM GEYSER TO GEYSER WITHIN THE NORRIS BASIN. SHE DID CONFIRM THE REPORTED CLOSURE OF THE BOARDWALK BETWEEN GREEN DRAGON AND PORKCHOP GEYSERS, BUT FELT THIS WAS SIMPLY A SAFETY PRECAUTION ON THE PART OF THE PARK SERVICE DUE TO NEW VENTING ACTIVITY CLOSE TO THE WALKWAY.

UPON PARKING THE CAR AND BEGINNING OUR EXCURSION AT THE NORRIS BASIN GEYSER AREA, WE ENCOUNTERED A HERD OF ELK NEAR THE PARKING LOT AND PATH DOWN TO THE BASIN. THEN WE ENCOUNTERED A BUGLING BULL NOT MORE THAN 50 FEET FROM US AND WATCHED AS HE CAME TOWARD THE TRAIL AND CROSSED NOT MORE THAN 15 FEET AWAY FROM US. AS WE CONTINUED TO WALK WE ENCOUNTERED A COW ELK ENTERING OUR PATH AND SHE PASSED WITHIN 10 FEET OF US WITH LITTLE CONCERN AS TO OUR PRESENCE.

I MENTION THIS, AS WELL AS OUR OBSERVATIONS OF OTHER NUMEROUS ELK AND BISON IN VARIOUS AREAS, TO STATE THE ANIMALS SEEMED VERY COMPLACENT AND AT EASE.

WHAT DID SURPRISE US AND GAVE ME A FEELING OF DANGER WAS JACKSON LAKE -- THE ENTIRE NORTH END IS VOID OF WATER! I NEVER KNEW JACKSON LAKE WAS CREATED AS AN IRRIGATION RESEVOIR FOR, AND PAID BY, IDAHO POTATO FARMERS YEARS AGO. THEY MUST HAVE BEEN WATERING A LOT OF POTATOES! ALSO, WE NOTED YELLOWSTONE RIVER WAS DOWN CONSIDERABLY AND SIMILARLY WAS YELLOWSTONE LAKE.

SCIENTISTS HAVE LONG UNDERSTOOD, WITH YEARS OF RESEARCH IN FAULTS AND VOLCANOLOGY TO BACK THEM UP, THAT YELLOWSTONE'S GEYSER ACTIVITY IS ACTUALLY A NATURAL POP-OFF VALVE THAT WORKS EXTREMELY WELL. HOWEVER, WATER ACTS AS A COOLENT AND RATHER THEN SPEWING LAVA IT SHOOTS WATER SKYWARD. IF I WERE TO STATE ANY FEELINGS OF UNEASEINESS, IT WOULD ONLY BE DUE TO THE LACK OF WATER AND WHAT WAS CAUSING IT!

IS THIS THE EFFECTS OF A REGIONAL DROUGHT, OR GLOBAL WARMING? WITHOUT ADAQUATE WATER MORE THAN STEAM WILL VENT?


Date: 10/10/2003 2:59:37 PM Pacific Daylight Time

From: oye@xxx

Thought you'd be interested in this. My sister is married to a certain geologist. He was working in the underground caverns near New Madrid. They are concerned of a huge quake happening in the Midwest like previously in 1811 & 1812. He and others were pulled from the research and told to get to Yellowstone ASAP. My sister told us just 4 weeks ago that he cannot talk about it. Anyone talking to the media or family will be arrested and detained without counsel. She said he and others were very afraid. Another friend drives a truck all over the US. He has been taking loads out of the area and transferring business and factory equipment to places farther East. They won't tell him either. This has been going on since this past March and is picking up speed as the year comes to a close.


Posted on Fri, Oct. 10, 2003

Danger in Yellowstone caldera may be eons away

BY SCOTT CANON

Knight Ridder Newspapers

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK - (KRT) - When European settlers wandered upon this otherworld of gurgling mud pits and angry geysers, they described it as a place where hell bubbled up."

They didn't guess, as geologists believe now, that three times in the last 2 million or so years, hell blasted the earth's crust here with a fury that can barely be imagined.

Most recently, some 640,000 years ago, Yellowstone's rage toppled mountainsides, changed the course of rivers and sprayed ash ankle deep over all of what is now the Western United States.

So there's understandable interest in whether it might blow again. And when.

Fresh high-technology studies of the underground cauldron - and discovery of a bulge on the floor of Yellowstone Lake - show anew the region as geology-in-the-making.

There's evidence that the bulge - described by one scientist as an "inflated plain" - might be throbbing from the pressure that pushed it up in the first place.

That detection has scientists captivated, not frightened, even as it fills amateur geologists with dread.

Those laymen worry that the pressure cooker of Yellowstone is set to burst.

Even smaller blasts - say the size of Mount St. Helens - that come about every 20,000 years or so can rearrange Yellowstone's scenery. The most recent of those was 70,000 years ago.

Some urge government engineers to gradually vent steam and magma by drilling, rather than wait for a seemingly imminent, giant and calamitous blast.

"If nothing is done there will be an unimaginable disaster," went discussion at one Internet discussion site. "But nobody even seems to be thinking about it."

But the geologists who explore the caldera - the collapsed supervolcano that is Yellowstone - share neither such alarmist doom nor faith in methods for taming the forces boiling underground.

For starters, drilling here would spoil the natural setting of the world's first national park in 1872, said park geologist Hank Heasler.

What's more, he said, it would do no good. The magma chamber miles below the park is mostly like a hardened sponge and is essentially self-sealing.

"Besides, it's too big," he said, noting the caldera measures 35 miles by 45 miles. "We're on the skin of the apple. We can leave little bruises, but we can't affect the flavor of the fruit."

Government and university scientists dismiss new worries about Yellowstone, about the bulge beneath the lake, and about recent changes at the park's Norris geyser basin. Mostly, they marvel at their out-sized laboratory.

They point out that, literally, the landscape of Yellowstone is always shifting. Last year, typical for the era when such measurements have been made, there were about 2,300 earthquakes in the park.

"Geologists usually look at something that formed millions of years ago and is now dead," said Lisa Morgan, a U.S. Geological Survey geologist. "But in Yellowstone, it's something that's happening right now."

The bulge, discovered with newly employed high-tech gadgetry and techniques led by Morgan last year might be relatively new. Or, she said, it could have formed millennia ago.

"I don't know whether this thing is active now in terms of inflation or not," Morgan said.

So what set off the panic in the it's-time-to-drill crowd? A few combinations of coincidence and research.

First, state-of-the-art mapping revealed some features of Yellowstone that were previously unknown. Next were more obvious changes to the Norris geyser basin were taking place. Combined with what scientists see as sensational press coverage, these triggered alarm in some circles.

Beginning in 2002, Morgan led a team that produced the first detailed topographical maps of the bottom of Lake Yellowstone - a pristine basin fed by 144 mountain streams and drained by the Yellowstone River.

Morgan deployed robotic submarines. She bounced sonar waves off the lakebed and at frequencies that penetrated deeper into that bottom. She ordered magnetic measurements of the rock. The result was a map that's precision befits the digital age.

"It's like having the cataracts taken off of your eyes," she said.

The scientific view was delightful. Through roughly the middle of the lake ran the edge of the Yellowstone caldera, that sunken supervolcano crater, a tad straighter and more to the east than previously thought.

In a northwestern corner of the lake was a spire field, column after column of towers ranging from just more than 3 feet to a little less than about 30 feet wide and sometimes more than two stories high.

Morgan said they were formed around hydrothermal vents, where sulfur-laced, super-heated water jets into the lake. The sulfur attracts bacteria. The bacteria become filled with silica and build layer upon layer - stalagmite-style - over the eons.

Perhaps most dramatic was the discovery of the bulge, what Morgan labeled an "inflated plain," to suggest it is evidence of pressure from below the lake nudging at the earth's skin.

Roughly the size of a few city blocks, she said it was pocked with hydrothermal vents that demonstrate it is close to the magma chamber below and possibly under more pressure that other places in the caldera.

If it were to blow, it would not be the first the lake has seen. An explosion at the northeast edge about 13,000 years ago left a three-mile-wide crater at Mary Bay. The larger West Thumb of the lake was the result of another blast.

While scientists were scanning the lake with sonar equipment in September 2003, one long-time Yellowstone researcher noticed an especially strong sulfur scent rising from bubbles in the water. He'd spent years on the lake but never noticed the smell to be so strong.

But the observation came at a time when it was unusual to be on the lake. Researchers typically leave by summer's end. In the fall, the lake is nearing its lowest levels, when there's less mountain runoff to dilute the sulfur-tainted water from underground hydrothermal venting.

"Maybe it's been that way during that season every year for a long time," Morgan said. "We don't know."

Meantime, there was a shift this year in the baffling water table at the Norris geyser basin about 20 miles away - leaving some former bubbling areas dry and creating neon green pools elsewhere that can scald to death wayward bison.

With at least one long-dormant geyser spitting to life near a trail, the park was forced to shut off a large portion of the boardwalk that winds through the steamy plateaus.

"Safety first," said Heasler, the park geologist. "The problem is, we don't know what's causing this."

To children, Heasler compares the enigma of Yellowstone geology to the seven volumes that are expected in the Harry Potter series.

"It's as if we're just into the first paragraph," he said. "There's an awful lot we don't know yet."

He emphasizes that discoveries such as the spires and the bulge are newly noticed, not necessarily new. So Heasler said they couldn't be taken as evidence that there had been any radical developments at Yellowstone in recent years.

The shift at the Norris geysers, he said, is the same sort of change that has made the place remarkable since scientists started paying attention. It would be more unusual if things stopped changing.

Still, Heasler said he received several anxious e-mails a week from people worried about an eruption at Yellowstone that could kill millions.

Bob Smith, a geophysics professor at the University of Utah, has been studying what he calls the living caldera" of Yellowstone for decades. He noted that there have been no unusual seismic activities at the park this year that might precede bigger trouble.

"These things don't go like clockwork," said Smith, author of Windows into the Earth: The Geologic Story of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. "The hazard … is almost too small to calculate."

© 2003, The Kansas City Star.

Visit The Star Web edition on the World Wide Web at http://www.kcstar.com


Date: Tue, 07 Oct 2003 22:29:10 -0500

From: John <yzzykrazy@xxx>

Brother Living In Yellowstone Area Explains Situation To His Sister

October 6, 2003 Dear Sis:

Sis, I just haven't had time to send you the info on Yellowstone. But here is the scoop. Yellowstone National Park is about to blow off the face of the Earth, and our wonderful leaders are keeping the whole thing squelched.

In July the Park rangers closed the entire Norris Geyser Basin because of the deformation of the land and the excess temperature. There is an area there that is 28 miles long by 7 miles wide that has bulged upward over five inches since 1996, and this year the ground temperature on that bulge has reached over 200 degrees. There was no choice but to close off the whole area. Everything in that area is dying. The trees, flowers, grass, etc. A dead zone is developing and spreading outward. The animals are literally migrating out of the park. This isn't hearsay. It is coming from people who have actually visited the park in just the last few weeks.

Then the last part of July one of the Park geologists discovered a huge bulge at the bottom of Yellowstone Lake. The bulge has already risen over 100 feet from the bottom of the lake, and the water temperature at the surface of the bulge has reached 88 degrees and is still rising. Keep in mind that Yellowstone Lake is a high mountain lake with very cold water temperature. The Lake is now closed to the public. It is filled with dead fish floating everywhere. The same is true of the Yellowstone river and most of the other streams in the Park. Dead and dying fish are filling the water everywhere.

Many of the picnic areas in the Park have been closed and people that are visiting the Park don't stay but a few hours or a day or two and leave. The stench of sulphur is so strong that they literally can't stand the smell.

The irony of all this is that not one word of this is being brought to public attention by the news media or by our government which is supposed to be "protecting" us. But, believe it or not, just last week a British newspaper broke the story about Yellowstone National Park being "a threat to the entire world."

Sis, Yellowstone is what geologists call a "super volcano." There is a massive caldera of molten fire beneath Yellowstone National Park. When this thing blows, geologists are saying that every living thing within six hundred miles is likely to die.

Yet our wonderful news media is not telling the public a thing about this. They are keeping it suppressed so that it won't effect the "economy." To hell with the lives of people, just protect the pocket books of the rich. When this things explodes it will produce an ash cloud that will cover the entire western U.S. clear to the Pacific on the west, British Columbia on the north, the Mexican border on the south, and then out into the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas on the east. And then the clould will blow east because of the prevailing winds, literally covering the entire nation with volcanic ash. And the American people are not even being told that the explosion of this "super volcano" is imminent. There is no question that this thing is going to explode momentarily. The movement of magma has been detected just three-tenths of a mile below the bulging surface of the ground in Yellowstone.


YELLOWSTONE WILL BLOW AGAIN - NO TELLING WHEN

Kansas City Star
October 7, 2003

http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/1007Yellowstone-ON.html

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK - When European settlers wandered upon this otherworld of gurgling mud pits and angry geysers, they described it as a place where hell bubbled up.

They didn't guess, as geologists believe now, that three times in the last 2 million or so years, hell blasted the earth's crust here with a fury that can barely be imagined.

Most recently, some 640,000 years ago, Yellowstone's rage toppled mountainsides, changed the course of rivers and sprayed ash ankle deep over all of what is now the Western United States.

So there's understandable interest in whether it might blow again. And when. Fresh high-technology studies of the underground cauldron -- and discovery of a bulge on the floor of Yellowstone Lake -- show anew the region as geology-in-the-making.

There's evidence that the bulge -- described by one scientist as an "inflated plain" -- might be throbbing from the pressure that pushed it up in the first place.

That detection has scientists captivated, not frightened, even as it fills amateur geologists with dread.

Those laymen worry that the pressure cooker of Yellowstone is set to burst.

Even smaller blasts -- say the size of Mount St. Helens -- that come about every 20,000 years or so can rearrange Yellowstone's scenery. The most recent of those was 70,000 years ago.

Some urge government engineers to gradually vent steam and magma by drilling, rather than wait for a seemingly imminent, giant and calamitous blast.

"If nothing is done there will be an unimaginable disaster," went discussion at one Internet discussion site. But nobody even seems to be thinking about it."

But the geologists who explore the caldera -- the collapsed supervolcano that is Yellowstone -- share neither such alarmist doom nor faith in methods for taming the forces boiling underground.

For starters, drilling here would spoil the natural setting of the world's first national park in 1872, said park geologist Hank Heasler.

What's more, he said, it would do no good. The magma chamber miles below the park is mostly like a hardened sponge and is essentially self-sealing.

"Besides, it's too big," he said, noting the caldera measures 35 miles by 45 miles. "We're on the skin of the apple. We can leave little bruises, but we can't affect the flavor of the fruit."

Discovery of the bulge

Government and university scientists dismiss new-born worries about Yellowstone, about the bulge beneath the lake, and about recent changes at the park's Norris geyser basin. Mostly, they marvel at their out-sized laboratory.

They point out that, literally, the landscape of Yellowstone is always shifting. Last year, typical for the era when such measurements have been made, there were about 2,300 earthquakes in the park.

"Geologists usually look at something that formed millions of years ago and is now dead," said Lisa Morgan, a U.S. Geological Survey geologist. "But in Yellowstone, it's something that's happening right now."

The bulge, discovered with newly employed high-tech gadgetry and techniques led by Morgan last year, might be relatively new. Or, she said, it could have formed millennia ago.

"I don't know whether this thing is active now in terms of inflation or not," Morgan said.

So what set off the panic in the it's-time-to-drill crowd? A few combinations of coincidence and research.

First, state-of-the-art mapping revealed some features of Yellowstone that were previously unknown. Next were more obvious changes to the Norris geyser basin were taking place. Combined with what scientists see as sensational press coverage, these triggered alarm in some circles.

Beginning in 2002, Morgan led a team that produced the first detailed topographical maps of the bottom of Lake Yellowstone -- a pristine basin fed by 144 mountain streams and drained by the Yellowstone River.

Morgan deployed robotic submarines. She bounced sonar waves off the lake bed and at frequencies that penetrated deeper into that bottom. She ordered magnetic measurements of the rock. The result was a map whose precision befit the digital age.

"It's like having the cataracts taken off of your eyes," she said.

The scientific view was delightful. Through roughly the middle of the lake ran the edge of the Yellowstone caldera, that sunken supervolcano crater, a tad straighter and more to the east than previously thought.

In a northwestern corner of the lake was a spire field, column after column of towers ranging from just more than 3 feet to a little less than about 30 feet wide and sometimes more than two stories high.

Morgan said they were formed around hydrothermal vents, where sulfur-laced, super-heated water jets into the lake. The sulfur attracts bacteria. The bacteria become filled with silica and build layer upon layer -- stalagmite-style -- over the eons.

Perhaps most dramatic was the discovery of the bulge, what Morgan labeled an "inflated plain," to suggest it is evidence of pressure from below the lake nudging at the earth's skin.

Roughly the size of a few city blocks, she said it was pocked with hydrothermal vents that demonstrate it is close to the magma chamber below and possibly under more pressure that other places in the caldera.

If it were to blow, it would not be the first the lake has seen. An explosion at the northeast edge about 13,000 years ago left a three-mile-wide crater at Mary Bay. The larger West Thumb of the lake was the result of another blast.

Like Harry Potter

While scientists were scanning the lake with sonar equipment in September 2003, one long-time Yellowstone researcher noticed an especially strong sulfur scent rising from bubbles in the water. He'd spent years on the lake but never noticed the smell to be so strong.

But the observation came at a time when it was unusual to be on the lake. Researchers typically leave by summer's end. In the fall, the lake is nearing its lowest levels, when there's less mountain runoff to dilute the sulfur-tainted water from underground hydrothermal venting.

"Maybe it's been that way during that season every year for a long time," Morgan said. "We don't know."

Meantime, there was a shift this year in the baffling water table at the Norris geyser basin about 20 miles away -- leaving some former bubbling areas dry and creating neon green pools elsewhere that can scald to death wayward bison.

With at least one long-dormant geyser spitting to life near a trail, the park was forced to shut off a large portion of the boardwalk that winds through the steamy plateaus.

"Safety first," said Heasler, the park geologist. "The problem is, we don't know what's causing this."

To children, he compares the enigma of Yellowstone geology to the seven volumes that are expected in the Harry Potter series.

"It's as if we're just into the first paragraph," he said. "There's an awful lot we don't know yet."

He emphasizes that discoveries such as the spires and the bulge are newly noticed, not necessarily new. So Heasler said they couldn't be taken as evidence that there had been any radical developments at Yellowstone in recent years.

The shift at the Norris geysers, he said, is the same sort of change that has made the place remarkable since scientists started paying attention. It would be more unusual if things stopped changing.

Still, Heasler said he received several anxious e-mails a week from people worried about an eruption at Yellowstone that could kill millions.

Bob Smith, a geophysics professor at the University of Utah, has been studying what he calls the living caldera" of Yellowstone for decades. He noted that there have been no unusual seismic activities at the park this year that might precede bigger trouble.

"These things don't go like clockwork," said Smith, author of Windows into the Earth: The Geologic Story of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. "The hazard ... is almost too small to calculate."


In Yellowstone, a Subterranean Volcano Exerts its Influence

Jim Robbins for The New York Times

At the Norris Geyser Basin last summer, parts of unpaved trails were dissolved by acidic groundwater.

By JIM ROBBINS

Published: October 7, 2003

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. — The rolling pine forests, snowcapped mountains and crisp fall evenings here tend to make people forget the fact that the park sits atop a huge simmering underground volcano. But new geologic events have served up reminders.

In a few days in July, acidic ground water dissolved parts of the unpaved trails in the Norris Geyser Basin, and the ground temperature of the trails shot up to 200 degrees from the usual maximum of 80. Park officials closed nearly half of the basin's trails, and they remain shut.

On Aug. 21, a magnitude 4.4 earthquake shook the southern boundary of the park and startled residents. Yellowstone is one of the most seismically active places on the planet, with hundreds of shakes and shimmers throughout the year. They reach magnitude 4 usually only every other year.

In the park, such events are no great surprise. "Change is what we expect in Yellowstone," said the park geologist, Hank Heasler.

Although there is no indication that any of the changes suggest an impending eruption, even that would not be so surprising.

Over last 630,000 years, Yellowstone has experienced 29 eruptions the size of the one on Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991. The average interval here has been 20,000 years, and 70,000 have passed since its last eruption.

But the volcano, with a caldera 45 by 28 miles, has the potential for far more catastrophic explosions. The last major eruption, estimated at a magnitude 1,000 times as great as the Mount St. Helens explosion of 1980, was 627,000 years ago. The ancient blast blew up miles of mountain range, and ash from it has been uncovered in 22 Western states. It was so thick 1,000 miles away in Kansas that it was mined in the 1930's and used to make a cleanser.

Whether the caldera erupts or not, the stew of partly molten rock 5 to 10 miles below the park exerts a powerful and constant influence.

"The whole of the Yellowstone Plateau is going up and down from the magma," averaging one and a half centimeters a year, said Dr. Robert B. Smith, a professor of geophysics at the University of Utah and a member of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. "It's like a living, breathing thing."

In light of the new activity, safety is a growing concern, and officials are writing a hazard plan in case the region grows more active. The ground warming could mean that heat is increasing water pressure, a possible cause of eruptions.

In 1989, Porkchop Geyser in Norris Basin became clogged with silica. It exploded and created a 12-foot-wide crater now called Porkchop Hot Spring.

A hydrothermal explosion at Mary Bay in Yellowstone Lake some 13,000 years ago blew out a crater more than three miles across.

Serious earthquakes are always a possibility. Even though the temblor on Aug. 21 caused no damage, it was widely felt.

The largest quake recorded in the West, 7.5 on the old Richter scale, was centered just outside the park in 1959. It dislodged a huge slice of a mountain west of the park, buried 25 campers as they slept in a national forest campground and dammed the Madison River to create Quake Lake.

One question that occupies geologists is how the caldera affects fault lines and vice versa. Five major faults terminate in the molten caldera, and even far-flung events can shake the earth here. In November 2002, a magnitude 7.9 quake in Denali National Park in Alaska rippled through the region, leading to more than 500 other quakes that Dr. Smith watched simultaneously on a computer in Utah.

"The whole of Yellowstone lit up like a Christmas tree," he said. "It was exciting. I had a ranger call me and say, `I've called you before about earthquakes, but these are coming at us from all directions.' "

Except for the quake two months ago, Yellowstone has had far fewer quakes in recent years. "Seismically, its been deathly quiet," Dr. Smith said. "We average a half-dozen to 20 quakes" a day. "The last two years, we see a couple a day."

The energy of the quakes has been harnessed to shed light on the volcano. A measuring method, seismic tomography, which is similar to C.T. scanning, uses the shock waves that the quakes generate to map structures deep in the earth. Figures from 12,000 quakes gave Dr. Smith a picture of the size and shape of the magma chamber.

The magma also fuels geothermal features. All the geyser basins are similar, in that they sit over porous channelized rock layers that contain water under pressure. The water seeps toward the magma zone, where it is superheated. As the water is forced back toward the surface, the pressure is relieved and volume expands, causing geysers to erupt.

Even among the steaming, hissing and bubbling landscapes here, Norris Basin stands out. Steamboat Geyser is the tallest one in the park, at 380 feet, more than twice as high as Old Faithful. Test drilling in 1929 measured water temperatures 265 feet down at 400 degrees, and drilling equipment had to be withdrawn.

"The geothermal features of Norris are equally amazing to scientists who have been here for 30 years or someone on their first visit," said Mr. Heasler, the geologist.

Each year, a disturbance at Norris alters features and muddies the water. This year, the disturbance, on July 11, was more severe than usual. Because the "plumbing" is underground, the more precise mechanics of geyser basins are not well understood, and why Norris Basin has changed so markedly and suddenly is guesswork.

"The most common hypothesis is that snowmelt wanes and the water table lowers and weight on the system decreases and, as a result, the water boils more aggressively," said Dr. Jake Lowenstern, a geologist at the United States Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., who is in charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory.

Many features took longer than usual to return to base line, although some have not returned. Echinus Geyser once erupted frequently, every 35 to 75 minutes. In 1998 it switched to an irregular pattern. It had been erupting every two to nine hours before this season's disturbance, which somehow made it blow on a schedule again, every 3 hours 30 minutes to 3 hours 40 minutes. The geyser has now reverted to irregularity.

Pearl Geyser, an erupting pool named for its opalescent blue color, usually has two-meter eruptions. After the disturbance, it changed color to crystal clear, then became a steam vent and later returned to an opalescent pool with one-meter eruptions.

At the northern end of the basin, a series of vents, or fumaroles, appeared and mud pots cropped up on the trail, splattering hot acidic mud, though it later disappeared.

"Norris," Mr. Heasler said, "is showing us something, and whether we can figure it out, we'll see."

Copyright 2003 The New York Times Company


At 07:17 PM 10/1/2003,

--- grimalkin_q <grimalkin_q@yahoo.com> wrote:

To: apfn-1@yahoogroups.com

From: "grimalkin_q" <grimalkin_q@yahoo.com>

Date: Wed, 01 Oct 2003 17:33:23 -0000

Subject: [apfn-1] OT: Yellowstone just made FoxNews(radio) - Boiling ground

For anyone interested in the situation at Yellowstone, a friend just called and told me that on the hourly FoxNEWS on a local RADIO station that they stated that many trails have recently been cordoned off, due to **BOILING** ground....

And that, for the *first* time in approximately 30 years, the Boiling Geyser at Yellowstone erupted TWICE today.

At Yellowstone there are no dramatic changes augering a big event. Only  tiny changes which are typical of any active but relatively inert volcanic field. BUT Yellowstone should be intensively wired, monitored and studied. A big event could easily start up after a three to six month acceleration process in local changes.


The radio was on about Yellowstone blowing: 

9-17-03 - DREAM - I was in the backyard of my house. Some men came and were moving a lot of dirt around and covering up the evidence that the ground was heating up. They pulled in piles of burned off and still smoking trees which were still hot inside. I was standing on them with myh bare feet and could feel the heat in them. After they finished the trees movement then they covered it up with blankets so nobody would see it. 

We had to leave the area and evacuate without letting anyone know we were doing so. I hid a file about some people that investigators were looking for. 

I hid them in drawers that were easy to find, but not where they might look. 

Then I put on a heavy fur coat to protect myself with. 

My ex-husband Ed showed up, and I was hoping he would leave a gain and then we were told that he was staying because he was hired to do a radio show on Saturdays. 

NOTE: Art Bell is returning to radio on Saturdays. 

HISTORY OF FIRES AT YELLOWSTONE


 

 

Monday, September 15, 2003

Thermal activity in Yellowstone sparks increased monitoring

Special to WHT

Norris Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park has long been recognized as the hottest and most changeable of Yellowstone's famous hydrothermal wonders.

This summer, Norris lived up to its hot, unstable reputation as scientists and visitors alike have seen significant changes in many geysers and increased ground temperatures in the western part of the basin. Porkchop Geyser, which sprang to life from a small hot spring in 1971, erupted in July for the first time since 1989.

Water has drained away from several active geysers, resulting in hissing steam vents and ground temperatures as high as 200 degrees Fahrenheit.

Still other geysers have erupted more frequently and regularly, while some thermal features that usually release hot water and steam now send steam jetting into the air.

On July 11, the staff of Yellowstone National Park also noted the formation of a new mud pot - a small cauldron filled with boiling acidic water and mud. Within one week, the mudpot turned into a high - pressure steam vent.

Also, pine trees are dying in three areas in response to the increased thermal activity. Norris is one of the more popular geyser basins in Yellowstone, with as many as 4,000 people visiting the nearby museum each week.

On July 23, the park superintendent closed access to the western part of Norris Geyser Basin, known as the Back Basin, for public safety (other parts of Norris remain open to the public).

About a mile of trail and boardwalk in the Back Basin remain closed because of the hazard to visitors and park staff from the high temperatures.

Another potential hazard is from hydrothermal explosions that could send boiling water andd rocks shooting into the air.

The concern for public safety is real. Hydrothermal explosions have occurred recently at Norris and other areas of Yellowstone.

For example, Porkchop Geyser exploded on September 5, 1989. Rocks surrounding the old geyser were upended by the force of the explosion, and some rocks were thrown more than 216 feet from the spouting geyser.

Luckily, people in the area were not injured by the flying debris and scalding water.

The cause of the increased thermal activity is not known, but scientists associated with the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) launched a temporary monitoring experiment in August in order to learn from the ongoing activity.

YVO is a collaborative partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Utah, and Yellowstone National Park.

The Norris monitoring experiment is also supported by two research organizations - the Integrated Research Institutes in Seismology (IRIS) and University NAVSTAR Consortium (NAVCO).

Scientists installed a network of seven new seismic stations for recording various types of earthquakes. The instruments, called broadband seismometers, record a wide range of vibrations typical of hydrothermal and volcanic systems.

These seismometers are especially sensitive to the long - wavelength ground vibrations that occur as water and gas move through underground cracks.

Five high - precision Global Positioning System receivers also were installed at Norris in order to track movement of the ground in response to underground pulses of groundwater and steam and, in case one occurs, a hydrothermal explosion.

Data from the broadband and GPS receivers are being stored on site. The instruments and data will be retrieved in the next few weeks before the onset of winter.

Thermometers were also placed in hot springs and downstream from geysers and other thermal features to continuously measure temperature fluctuations that may occur.

The Norris experiment is intended to document activity within the shallow hydrothermal system that may be causing changes at the surface of the Back Basin.

In the coming months, scientists will be pouring over the mounds of data collected by the Norris experiment for possible clues to the renewed heating of Norris.

There is no evidence, however, that magma beneath the enormous Yellowstone caldera is directly involved.

Scientists have noted similar changes at Norris in the past, but the current activity is perhaps the best opportunity yet to quantitatively document and better understand hydrothermal disturbances and their possible causes at Yellowstone.

This article was written by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.


"Mt. Sheriden has been rumbling (15+ micro-quakes) between 1:00 pm and now (9/7/03). There were three small earthquakes at Yellowstone lake between 10:00 am and 1:00 pm MT (9/7/03), which were felt at Norris Junction.

There were some small quakes between Midnight and 6:00 am (9/7/03) at Norris Junction. There was a whole string of micro-quakes (25 or more) at Madison River between 6:00 am and now, which  are continuing. There have been sporadic micro-quakes (32+) all day at Mammoth Hot Springs. Micro-quakes started around Noon and have continued to the present at Mirror Lake Plateau. All in all, activity is picking up from a lull for about two weeks, before which a series of small and large quakes (including a 4.4) occurred. That quake prompted the web report.

Steam pressure is apparently building again, and hydrothermal fluids and steam are working their way up through fractures and vents. I do not expect anything unusual or extreme to happen in the immediate future, but if the trend continues, and the number of earthquakes gradually increase with time, more  warnings from geologists will ensue.

What you should be alert to is any report that mentions increasing geyser activity, with new fumaroles and steam vents appearing near or on top of the rising dome. The dome has risen about three feet in the past few years, and magma has risen to within 3.7 km of the surface based on quake data. Earthquake loci measured to within 0.5 km under Mt. St. Helens, and people still didn't think it would erupt.

But everything has to be scaled up for Yellowstone, meaning that 3.7 km is not a safe depth. Ground temperatures in the northwestern part of the park are apparently on the rise (up to 200 dg F in some places), killing the vegetation. Large areas of the park are now closed, including areas with geysers, because their water temperature is now scalding and dangerous for visitors.

If more steam vents appear, that means a continuous pathway for pressure release has been established to the magma chamber. If that happens, the pressure in the magma chamber will continue to drop until it reaches a critical stage when the superheated water within the magma explodes. When that happens the super-volcano will blow violently, blowing out a chunk of its cap-rock and sending millions of cubic feet of ash into the atmosphere in a Pompeii-like explosion, but 100,000 times worse.

When you hear those reports, you will have about two days to “get out of Dodge” before the eruption. Unfortunately, as the steam venting subsides, there will be a false sense of  security. People will think it was just another cyclical event, and the danger is over. But that will be the farthest from the truth. It will be the quiet before the storm. A major earthquake will suddenly rock their towns for hundreds of kilometers around Yellowstone, and soon thereafter 1,000+ degree pyroclastic flows will descend on them at  hundreds of miles per hour, extending out to 600+ km.

That 600 km radius around the caldera will experience total devastation. The next 600 km out may receive as much as 5-10 feet of ash, depending on wind direction. The thickness of ash will decrease away from the super-volcano, but will reach the crop belt in the Midwest (Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, etc.), destroying most of the fertile croplands of the United States. California will be hit hard by falling ash, with its central wine valley severely damaged (the French will love it). Agriculture will have to shift east of the Mississippi for years. The Garden State will once again live up to its name.

In northern Idaho you will have to contend with several feet of ash and isolation. Roads will be closed. Power will be out. Phones will be out. Communication will depend on Ham radios and  local stations that have generators. Rescue will take weeks or months. Some areas will never see rescue teams. The survivalists will be best prepared to make it through the difficult months following the eruption. Make new friends. Have plenty of dust masks on hand, because you cannot breath any airborne ash if you want to avoid lung disease. It's what caused mass kills of plains animals 12 million years ago, resulting in extensive bone beds beneath the ash. Drinkable water will sell at the price of gold.

To recap, I don't expect anything to happen in the near future. But with such an unpredictable event, being prepared is your best ticket to survival."

(Dr. Bruce Cornet)


9-5-03

Cost of Losing Yellowstone

Although it's a long shot to happen in the next few days, over a longer period of time, there's a good chance that Yellowstone will blow its top and the simmering caldera will let rip with Mt. St. Helen's (or greater) magnitude. I've been watching this sort of out of the corner of one eye because if or when the Yellowstone Park area goes in any kind of massive eruption, the impacts on food supplies worldwide will be horrible. The plume area from Yellowstone covers a good-sized chunk of the Midwest.

Reader reports and items which we have picked up off news groups are sounding pretty scary. Areas are being closed off, there are reports of dead animals and even fish are reported dying off in large numbers. Against this background, the USGS says there is an increase in government monitoring, such as a recent news release that says in part:

"In response to notably increased heat and steam emissions in parts of Norris Geyser Basin, the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory will deploy a temporary network of seismographs, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and temperature loggers. The temporary deployment is intended to document chemical and physical signals that accompany this increased activity, to identify the underground locations of hydrothermal steam sources and the relationship of the Norris geyser basin to the background general seismicity, and crustal deformation of the Yellowstone caldera. It may also detect any precursory signals to geyser eruptions and hydrothermal explosions.

A reader sends in this interesting compilation, which augments other reports we have had:

"fish are floating dead in the streams, and the lake is closed. A very strong smell of H2SO4 (sulfur) People were leaving due to smell --- He also mentioned that the Seismo sites had been shut down" and "there is a large dead zone of animals and vegetation. Immediately outside this dead zone, vegetation has stopped growing and animals are migrating out of the area. New geysers and mud pots are springing up daily. You can physically see the ground bulging up, not only at Yellowstone Lake, but in several places in the park" enclosed are 2 brief reports on this matter.

If this is true it will be interesting to see your report on Mars, the sun, and coronal mass ejection. Would love to see if you can confirm these reports. A daily reader and fan for 3 years. Love your work!!

1. First report

Yellowstone is worse than we thought --The husband of my daughter´s social studies teacher is staying at the Crow Reservation in Montana, 100 miles from Yellowstone. He said that over and above everything we have heard to date (which he says is absolutely true), there is a large dead zone of animals and vegetation. Immediately outside this dead zone, vegetation has stopped growing and animals are migrating out of the area. New geysers and mud pots are springing up daily. You can physically see the ground bulging up, not only at Yellowstone Lake, but in several places in the park. They have closed more areas to the public than is being reported. There are several areas where the ground temperature tops 200 degrees. And earthquakes are becoming a daily occurrence.

2. Second report

Anonymous warning from visitor to yellowstone

Tue Sep 2 2003 3:10:31 pm

Phenomena

From: Scorpio,

Subject: Yellowstone-Problems?

Hello folks, next door neighbor just got back from a weeks stay in Yellowstone. we talked and I was told a lot more camping areas have been closed off besides around the Lake. he is an avid fisherman, said the fish are ffloating dead in the streams, and the lake is closed. A very strong smell of H2SO4 (sulfur) People were leaving due to smell --- He also mentioned that the Seismo sites had been shut down!??????

Did some homework on Utah and Montana sites YEP---- looks like things are not being updated after Aug 29-30-----Can anyone confirm?? Anyone out there near Yellowstone that might be able to fill us in?

Your Thoughts Folks???? Scorpio

Well, you might want to bookmark the Yellowstone recent quakes map at http://www.seis.utah.edu/req2webdir/recenteqs/index.html so you won't have to search for it if the area pops off shortly.

The other thing to consider is how the economy of Wyoming and the surrounding states will do should the area become explosively active. Yellowstone tourism and trade contributes directly about 15% of Wyoming economic activity. A series of major quakes, explosions, and volcanic activity could put this event in the class of a "supervolcano". As one post I found put it:

"When Yellowstone goes off again, and it will, it will be a disaster for the United States and eventually, for the whole world. We volcanologists believe it would all begin with the magma chamber becoming unstable. Observations would begin by seeing bigger earthquakes, greater uplifting as magma intrudes and gets nearer and nearer the surface. An earthquake may send a rupture through a brittle layer similar to breaking the lid off a pressure cooker. This would generate sheets of magma, which will perhaps rise up to 30, 40 or 50 kilometers sending gigantic amounts of debris into the atmosphere. Pyroclastic flows would cover the whole region, killing tens of thousands of people in the surrounding area.

The ash carried in the atmosphere and deposited over vast areas of the United States would have devastating effects. A plume of material that goes up into the atmosphere, globally, from the eruption would produce the climatic effects. This would spread worldwide and have a cooling effect that would most likely destroy the growing season on a global scale.

As Dr. Ted Nield, of the Geological Society of London, stated once, “When a supervolcano goes off, it is an order of magnitude greater than a normal eruption. It produces energy equivalent to an impact with a comet or an asteroid.” “You can try diverting an asteroid, but there is nothing at all you can do about a supervolcano.”

The eruption will throw out cubic kilometers of rock, ash, dust, sulfur dioxide and so on into the upper atmosphere, where it will reflect incoming solar radiation, forcing down temperatures on the earth’s surface. It would be the equivalent of a nuclear winter. The effects would last for four or five years with crops failing and the whole ecosystem breaking down."

http://messagequotes.8m.net/Two%20geological%20time%20bombs.doc

Since there is about nothing you can do about the possibility of a supervolcano, this is really more a mind-stretch for a Friday morning. Will the caldera at Yellowstone become a massive volcano capable of causing the entire planet to drop into a nuclear winter-like cooling? Yes, no doubt. But it's all a matter of timing. Right now, there's nothing saying that the dead fish, the dead coyote reported from another source, or any number of other events are anything but minor cyclical blips. Still, it's worth keeping an eye on the situation because if it goes, there's the end of the stock markets around the world. One thing is obvious, the markets aren't discounting anything for such an event, and it will likely take serious pre-eruption activities such as closing the entire park and moving people out of the plume area before the markets will react. Even then it will likely be initially only a small move.

FROM: http://www.urbansurvival.com/week.htm


East entrance to Yellowstone reopened round-the-clock

Associated Press

CHEYENNE — Yellowstone National Park’s east entrance was reopened round-the-clock Tuesday even though continued dry weather raised the possibility that a pair of wildfires could resume spreading.

The road was initially reopened from 6-9 a.m. and 6-9 p.m. each day. On Sunday and Monday the road was reopened from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.

Although nighttime traffic has been allowed to resume, park officials still urged motorists slow down and not stop along the 16 miles inside the area of the East and Grizzly fires, which combined cover 23,500 acres.

The fires were 85 percent contained. But while firefighters were mopping up some parts of the fires — such as by digging up and snuffing out smoldering roots — other parts of the fires were more active.

Firefighters were concerned that continued dry, warm weather could cause the fires to resume spreading after a week of holding at the same size. The forecast called for afternoon winds around 10 mph and high temperatures in the 70s.

"Whereas the activity is down somewhat, and the Type II team did an excellent job containing them, they’re still not out," fire information officer Brian Suderman said.

Helicopter bucket drops continued for especially hot spots.

In northwest Yellowstone, drivers along U.S. 191 north of West Yellowstone, Mont., were also being told to slow down and watch out for firefighters in the area of the 3,010-acre Rathbone fire.

Cinders blew across the highway Monday but on Tuesday there were no plans to partially close the road, as happened last week. Park officials said vehicle escorts would return to the area if the fire flares up.

Park officials were meanwhile keeping an eye on the remote 800-acre Union fire near Union Falls in southwest Yellowstone. The Union Falls Trail has been closed.

No new fires had broken out in Yellowstone in recent days. Of the 74 fires reported in Yellowstone this year, 67 were caused by lightning and the other seven were human-caused.

In Shoshone National Forest about 35 miles east of Yellowstone, the 11,553-acre Boulder Basin II fire remained 65 percent contained. Just 32 firefighters and one helicopter remained on scene.

The Blackwater Complex about 30 miles west of Cody was still 85 percent contained. It has burned 6,805 acres.

Copyright © 2002 Associated Press. All rights reserved.


Yellowstone's other hibernating danger

Geologists have long known that the 10,000 hot springs and geysers in Yellowstone National Park are evidence of magma, hot molten rock below the surface. And they know that long ago the region experienced colossal eruptions on a scale never seen in recorded history.

But an important question has evolved in recent years: Is Yellowstone dying or just hibernating?

In the July 2001 issue of the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters, University of Wisconsin geologists Ilya Bindeman and John Valley report new evidence indicating "a high probability of a future catastrophic eruption sometime within the next million years, and possibly within the next hundred thousand years."

Analyzing minerals that serve as time capsules of past catastrophes, Bindeman and Valley have found support for other studies suggesting Yellowstone goes nuts every few hundred thousand years. They also propose a reason why: An epic hot spot.

Hot magma welling up from below acts like a burner, the researchers say, melting surface rock and forming giant chambers of lava that build up over long periods. Eventually, the chambers burst and release their fury.

Yellowstone's volcanism is dying, these researchers say, but it has at least one last gasp in store.

The new geologic evidence adds to satellite data showing that the treasured park straddling Idaho, Montana and Wyoming is destined to obliterate its own beauty. Not to mention that of a few surrounding states.

Yellowstone from space

Chuck Wicks of the U.S. Geological Survey uses a relatively new satellite technique called satellite radar interferometry to watch the ground rise, fall and morph around volcanoes and other volcanically active areas. While the Global Positioning System can also show ground movement, it does so only for locations where a monitor is in place on the ground.

But with radar interferometry, geologists map the topography of an entire region, then watch it change over time.

In 1997, Wicks and his colleagues used the technique to document uplifts at Yellowstone, which means the lava below was pushing its way to the surface. "Yellowstone is alive and very active," Wicks said.

But no one can say if or when it might become dangerously active. If a volcano is like a hibernating bear, however, then it may well be volcanic springtime in Yellowstone.

"Super explosions, about 1,000 times more material erupted than Mt. St. Helens in 1980, happen about every 600,000 years at Yellowstone," Wicks says. "And it's been about 620,000 years since the last super explosive eruption there."


August 21, 2003

Mild Earthquake Felt in Yellowstone Park

SALT LAKE CITY (AP)--A mild earthquake was reported near Yellowstone National Park on Thursday, the University of Utah Seismograph Stations said.

The magnitude 4.4 earthquake, was felt at the park's south entrance and at Grant Village, a tourist service area. No injuries or damage was reported or expected, seismologist Jim Pechmann said.

The epicenter at 1:46 a.m. was Huckleberry Mountain, Wyo., eight miles southeast of the south entrance to the park.

~~~~~~~~~~~~

Rare earthquake hits Wyoming

DENVER, Aug. 21, 2003 (UPI) -- An "uncommon" earthquake has shaken Wyoming, the World Data Center for Seismology reported Thursday.

The event began just before 2 a.m. local time, and registered 4.4 on the open-ended Richter scale, the Denver-based center said in a news release.

The epicenter was 30 miles southeast of Yellowstone Park in Montana, home of the Old Faithful geyser.

Large, damaging earthquakes in the region are uncommon but significant historical earthquakes have caused damage. The largest earthquake in the southern and middle Rocky Mountains occurred on Nov. 8, 1882, the center said.

There were no immediate reports of damage.

Also today:

Pakistan -- 6.7
Southern India -- 6.2
Southern Iran -- 5.9
New Zealand -- 6.8
Zaire -- 6.2

http://www.emsc-csem.org/


Yellowstone thermal activity increases

Saturday, August 09, 2003

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK (AP) -- Scientists plan to set up a temporary network of seismographs, Global Positioning System receivers and thermometers to monitor increasing hydrothermal activity in the Norris Geyser Basin and gauge the risk of a hydrothermal explosion.

The goal of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory is to pinpoint underground sources of hydrothermal steam and learn more about how seismic activity affects the basin.

A caldera that last erupted 70,000 years ago is in the center of Yellowstone. Scientists do not expect a volcanic eruption.

However, small hydrothermal explosions occur in the park almost every year. Usually they are not noticed until after the fact.

A hydrothermal explosion occurs when the pressure on hot groundwater is released suddenly. The water comes to a boil and expands, fracturing rocks and throwing them into the air. The resulting craters can be anywhere from a few feet to thousands of feet across.

The GPS equipment being set up can measure very small movements of the earth and the seismic array can measure earthquakes associated with flow of thermal water and those associated with geologic faults.

Seven seismometers that can record a wide range of seismic frequencies will be placed around the basin.

The Norris Back Basin has been closed since July 23 due to the formation of new mud pots, changes in geyser activity and much higher ground temperatures -- as hot as 200 degrees in some areas.

Vegetation has been dying due to thermal activity and altered eruption intervals for several geysers. Increased steam discharge has been continuing, according to park officials.

Hydrothermal activity has been increasing each year in the basin, but the increase in recent weeks has been especially rapid.

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory is a partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Utah and the park.

U.S. Geological Survey scientists studying the bottom of Yellowstone Lake, meanwhile, have expressed concern about a 100-foot-high bulge in the bottom of the lake that may have been formed recently.

The scientists speculate the bulge could have been formed by carbon dioxide or steam and that it could explode.


August 8, 2003

Norris geysers prompt closure

Part of Norris Geyser Basin is getting too hot to handle, according to a Yellowstone National Park Superintendent Suzanne Lewis who decided Wednesday to close the area.

High ground temperatures and increased steam eruptions led Lewis to close the western part of Back Basin trail at Norris to tourists and most park employees. Park staff have measured ground temperatures of up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit and recorded changing geyser activity.

Vixen Geyser has been erupting more frequently, and Echinus Geyser has been erupting at more regular intervals. Even Porkchop Geyser, dormant since it exploded in 1989, is steaming again.

“These are active areas,” said park spokeswoman Cheryl Matthews. “It’s part of the fascination, and part of what people find so wonderful about Yellowstone, is the thermal areas and the uniqueness. It’s never stagnant.”

Norris Geyser Basin, which sits 22 miles south of Mammoth Hot Springs, is Yellowstone’s hottest and most seismically active geyser basin. While the changes are part of Yellowstone’s natural dynamics, Lewis closed part of the basin to protect park staff and visitors from hot ground temperatures and too much steam.

At West Yellowstone Visitor Center, 28 miles southwest of Norris, Marysue Costello said visitor center staff had heard stories of new thermal activity before the closure was announced. On Wednesday, she and other staff explained the closure to tourists, who showed little reaction.

“I wouldn’t say that anybody has said, ‘Oooh, better not go there,’” she said.

In fact, many tourists are surprised to learn that Yellowstone has so many active geysers besides Old Faithful, she said. The closure is a good way to teach visitors about Yellowstone’s geothermal activity, she said, stressing that “this is a living, breathing area, and it changes.”

The closure affects only a tiny portion of the park, Matthews said. It encompasses 5,800 feet of 12,500 feet of trails in the geyser basin. The popular Steamboat and Echinus geysers and all of Porcelain Basin remain open. Norris is a popular draw, attracting thousands of visitors weekly.

Park officials decided to close the Back Basin trail after detecting increased activity, beginning July 11. Several geyser pools drained, creating steam vents, an indication the basin was heating up, park officials said. Also, park staff measured ground temperatures of 200 degrees Fahrenheit – an unacceptably high level for visitor and employee safety, park officials said.

On July 16, park staff discovered a new mud pot and other thermal features forming in the Back Basin. That same day, Porkchop Geyser erupted for the first time 24 years. Porkchop Geyser regularly let off steam from 1985 until it exploded in ’89 and went dormant.

Park staff also have observed dying vegetation due to shifting thermal activity. Staff are monitoring the area daily, Matthews said. When ground temperatures and thermal activity return to acceptable levels, she said park officials would reopen the trail.

The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory reported small earthquakes in the area on July 18 and 21. The second was only 3 miles northeast of Norris. In July and August of 2000, a swarm of small quakes generated interest because it coincided with significant changes in hydrothermal activity at Norris.

Park staff and other scientists have no evidence of volcanic activity at the basin, she said. But in any geothermal area, the possibility of steam eruptions always exists, park officials stress.

So far, park officials have no indication of increased thermal activity in other areas of the park. Park staff monitor daily a network of seismic instruments in the park to detect changes.

The recent closures of the Gibbon, Madison and Firehole rivers are not related to the thermal activity at Norris. Lewis closed the rivers because of rising temperatures, which are affected primarily by air temperature and water level – not geothermal activity, park officials said.


Strange activity in Yellowstone

By Greg Lavine

The Salt Lake Tribune

Scientists are increasing geothermal monitoring efforts in Yellowstone National Park in response to an unusual spike in activity that has closed part of Norris Geyser Basin.

With ground temperatures in some spots reaching the boiling point of water, 212 degrees, visitors have been prohibited from hiking along a back basin trail. There is no danger to visitors in other sections of the park.

"It's not an emergency," said University of Utah geophysicist Robert Smith, a coordinating scientist with the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. "It's kind of a scientific urgency."

Researchers from the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, including Smith, are in Norris Geyser Basin this week setting up temporary monitoring equipment. Among the tools being deployed are seven broadband seismometers and five GPS sensors, said Jake Lowenstern, a U.S. Geological Survey researcher who is the observatory's director.

Broadband seismometers, capable of picking up tiny ground movements, will be used to detail the water moving just below the surface, he said. GPS monitors will record side-to-side and up-and-down ground movements.

In July, the National Park Service closed 5,800 feet of trail crossing geothermally active areas in the back basin, on the park's west side. The increased activity prompted Porkchop geyser to erupt for the first time since 1989.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Yogi be warned: Explosion may rock Yellowstone

01/08/2003 - 16:18:55

Scientists fear a giant explosion could rock Yellowstone National Park, one of the USA’s top tourist destinations which inspired the setting for the Yogi Bear cartoons.

A 2,100-foot bulge in the lake at the centre of Wyoming beauty spot looks likely to boil over, spewing poisoned gasses and rocks around the area and causing massive waves of hot water.

“We’re thinking this structure could be a precursor to an hydrothermal explosive event,” Dr Lisa Morgan from the US Geological Survey told Cody Enterprise, a newspaper in the state.

Sonar readings indicate the bulge is not a volcano but is caused by carbon dioxide gas or steam.

Dr Morgan and her team of researchers are preparing a danger assessment study to indicate how likely the plain is to explode.

If it does blow, it could leave a crater thousands of feet in diameter, send pieces of the lake floor flying into the air and discharge “chemicals containing toxic materials”, she said.

But Dr Morgan said there was still a possibility that the dome shaped bulge could “freeze in time” and become dormant.

Yellowstone Park is the flagship of America’s National Park Service, and visited by millions of people each year.

Yogi, the easy going grizzly bear who spent his time stealing picnic baskets and outwitting Ranger Smith, was set in Jellystone National Park, loosely based on Yellowstone.

Lowenstern said scientists hope their temporary equipment is able to capture information about the geyser, should it become even more active for brief periods.

The area under study is a 600-by-200-foot rectangle in the back basin. New steam vents and mud pots have formed in recent weeks because of the geothermal activity increase.

Norris Geyser Basin experiences increased geothermal activity every summer, though this year has seen a larger than normal jump, he said.

glavine@sltrib.com


The Red Canyon Fault hike will be every Thursday at 10 a.m. The one-mile roundtrip hike is approximately one to one and one-half hours long. Hikers will discover the fault that was a key factor in the 7.5 magnitude Hebgen Lake Earthquake

Hydrothermal and tectonic activity in northern Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming Samuel Y. Johnson, U.S. Geological Survey, MS 966, Box 25046, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, et al. Pages 954–971.

Keywords: Yellowstone Lake, seismic reflection profiles, hydrothermal processes, explosive eruptions, extension faults, earthquake hazards.

Seismic reflection data from northern Yellowstone Lake document the distribution, size, geometry, and relative age of geothermal features, including the world's largest known hydrothermal explosion craters, asymmetric crater ejecta, and vents and domes of variable size and concentration. Recognition of submerged shoreline terraces completes a postglacial record of "heavy breathing" of the Yellowstone caldera, an essential context for understanding past and future caldera behavior. Documentation of the Lake Hotel fault zone provides important information for local to regional earthquake hazard assessment.


SOME COMMENTS

ALERT FOR THOSE LIVING WITHIN 600 MILES OF YELLOWSTONE

Much of Larry Parks research has appeared on this board and we have been reading his reports but now a new earthquake has upped the ante...Below is the link to the entire article. This is important that this be circulated as we cannot be certain this will be covered by the mainstream media.

http://yowusa.com/Archive/Aug2003/volcanism4/volcanism4.htm

In this article, Larry Park will present the science behind his warning. However, as the publisher of YOWUSA.COM, I wish to put some context to all this in layman’s terms as now as I personally feel the time has come for everyone living west of the Mississippi to become aware and to begin making a calm and deliberate assessment of the facts. This especially applies to those presently living within 600 miles of Yellowstone.


Thursday, January 01, 2004 Photos and articles ©2003 the Bozeman Daily Chronicle

Yellowstone a hotspot of contention

By SCOTT McMILLION Chronicle Staff Writer

The Internet news about Yellowstone National Park's volcano sure didn't look cheery.

In fact, it was ghastly.

"We are overdue for annihilation," claimed one Web site.

"There is no question that this thing is going to explode momentarily," asserted another.

And it went on from there over the past couple of months in chat rooms and e-mail messages.

One widely posted e-mail claimed the park contained a "dead zone" that was spreading outward, killing everything. Yellowstone Lake was "filled with dead fish floating everywhere."

Plus, there was a conspiracy afoot.

"Our wonderful news media is not telling the public a thing about this," the anonymous, but widespread, message maintained.

It cited as a source the Kansas City Star, which the author of the e-mail presumably saw as a nonparticipant in the conspiracy of silence.

Like many others from around the nation, a Star reporter had written about the Yellowstone volcano -- a topic that isn't new to most people living in or near the park -- but he had made no calamitous predictions in the Oct. 7 article.

In fact, the story downplayed any concerns of imminent catastrophe.

"A good solid newspaper article got falsified on the Internet," said Hank Heasler, the park's geologist. "It's interesting how the anarchy of the Web contributes to misinformation."

Some people didn't see it that way. Apparently believing anonymous e-mail instead of the newspaper, they denounced the Star, "angry that we hadn't done more about the 'Yellowstone catastrophe,'" wrote Yvette Walker, the paper's readers' representative. Others e-mailed the reporter, telling him he was "either helping the government whitewash the Yellowstone story, or that he's an unwitting dupe."

Yellowstone was designated as a national park in 1872 because of its unique and fascinating geology. It contains the world's largest set of thermal features: fumaroles and mudpots and geysers that are heated by a "hotspot" of magma under the park's surface.

That hotspot also constitutes the base of one of the world's largest volcanoes, though it's largely invisible and hasn't erupted for 70,000 years.

Three times in the past 2.1 million years, the park has blown its top, covering much of the country in deep layers of volcanic ash and wreaking havoc with global weather systems. The last big eruption was 640,000 years ago, and there have been 30 smaller ones since then. The most recent was 70,000 years ago.

Things are still moving around, though.

"Yellowstone is one of the world's largest active volcanoes," Heasler said.

All this has been well known for decades.

Yet for a considerable period this fall, alarmed people called the park, worried about a mega-explosion.

"The phones did ring off the hook" for a while in early October, said Stacy Valle, a park spokeswoman.

But why all the renewed interest, all the heightened fears?

Part of it stems from new research last summer that detailed a "bulge" on the floor of Lake Yellowstone. It's probably related to thermal activity, Heasler said, but it isn't necessarily new.

Rather, new technology just defined it better.

Heasler compared the new underwater mapping to a person with poor eyesight finally putting on a pair of eyeglasses. For years, that person might have admired the shapes of distant hills, but didn't see the trees on them until purchasing spectacles.

That person's world got more interesting, but that doesn't mean the trees weren't there before, Heasler observed.

The bulge discovery was outlined in newspapers and broadcasts around the country. Then rumor mongers and apocalyptic types on the Internet got involved.

"The volcano erupts with a near clockwork cycle of every 600,000 years," according to the Web site armageddononline.com, which notes the last big eruption was 640,000 years ago.

That site also sells "books, videos and DVDs related to the end of the world" and says it gets 90,000 hits a month.

Some of those people called the park.

"There's been a lot of energy and effort devoted to the concerns people have about the park blowing up," said Heasler, who lives in Yellowstone and hasn't packed any bags.

Another Web site connected the Yellowstone situation to a planetary link with Mars.

When the National Park Service last summer closed part of the Norris Geyser Basin, the most geologically active place in the park, it added to the speculation. Soil temperatures there reached 200 degrees and a new thermal feature opened up and started splashing acidic mud across a trail.

For obvious reasons, the area was closed to the public. It was reopened when things cooled off.

It's all pretty interesting stuff, but not all that unusual at Norris.

"It occurs basically yearly," Heasler said.

The idea that Yellowstone is "overdue" for a giant eruption is a "gross overstatement," according to the Web site of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, a project that combines the research talents of the federal government and the University of Utah.

A more likely event, Heasler said, would be a magma flow, events which happen all the time around the world.

If the big one does come, it will give warnings and modern instruments likely will detect it, Heasler said.

The park's frequent, low-intensity earthquakes -- there were an average of six a day in 2002 -- probably would become a lot more intense if a major eruption was brewing, Heasler said.

The park likely would be evacuated, as would parkside communities, he said, and the media is unlikely to let a story like that go untold.

"All that's good stuff for a novel, but isn't worth spending a lot of time on now," Heasler added.

The park is a fascinating geology lab, showcasing changes that normally take hundreds of thousands or millions of years.

"Here, it's on a daily basis," Heasler said. "The thermal features are normal," but that means they're always rearranging themselves, sometimes causing paths or areas to be closed for reasons of public safety.

"Is that unusual?" he asked. "Heck no. Just ask the boardwalk crew. But we see no sort of indication of any sort of impending eruption."


Subj: RE: [1] Yellowstone

Date: 1/6/2004 3:31:06 AM Pacific Standard Time

From: foreverblue@xxx

good friend Bruce Cornet ... well actually good friend of my god mother in NJ wrote this to her; he could be wrong ...

Dear P,

I just finished reading a web page of yours posted at a forum I like to read. It was the one about Yellowstone. Living not to far from there I am very interested in all reports on it. Very in-depth report .. I especially liked it that you added pics to the page to show where the lava flows were and such.

I have analyzed the Yellowstone historical and recent data, and am concerned that the scale of the next eruption has been overestimated by people untrained in geology by several orders of magnitudes. There is no imminent catastrophic eruption at Yellowstone for a number of significant scientific reasons. If an eruption does occur, it will undoubtedly be similar to what has occurred off and on over the past few tens of thousands of years. The problem is that the Yellowstone magma chamber can never erupt as a supervolcano again because the size of the magma chamber and the pressures that can build up could never reach that of prior eruptions millions of years ago in the supervolcano trend. Do not mistaken my words. The next eruption may occur within several thousand years, but it will not be much bigger than Mt. St. Helens in size.

There is no flammable rock. That is pure ignorance and misinformation. Pyroclastic rock exists due to volatile volcanic gases, but that rock will glow as if on fire only because it is near molten when it is thrown out of the magma chamber. Sulfur will burn, but SO2, CO2, and H2O will not. Most volcanic gases are made up of nonflammable materials. Silicate rock does not burn.

The size of the last three major Yellowstone eruptions was much less than previous eruptions further to the southwest, and each has been decreasing in size and increasing in frequency. As the amount of time between eruptions has decreased, so too has the time available for a magma chamber to grow. Because the last three major eruptions have occurred under the same area, the caprock to the magma chamber is highly fractured. In other words, the gas pressure in the magma chamber is able to leak out to the surface, and is visible at the surface in the form of fumaroles, mudpots, hotsprings, and geysers. Those surficial expressions of underground pressure are also the reason why extreme pressure (as develops just prior to a supervolcanic eruption) cannot develop again at Yellowstone. Small local eruptions can and do occur. On a geologic time scale, it appears that the deep mantle hotspot is dying.

See http://bcornet.homestead.com/files/Yellowstone/Periodicity.htm

The only flammable material that exists relative to a Yellowstone volcanic eruption is present in super-hyped reports based on fear that increasing evidence of underground pressure and temperature rise means the worst will happen. There would be little or no prior indication for a supervolcanic eruption, because magma pressures would be contained right up to the breaking point. Yellowstone is a leaky volcanic system, and it goes through periodic cycles of activity.

See http://www.geocities.com/bcornet2001/Yellowstone/Yellowtrend.htm

Yours truly,

Bruce Cornet, Ph.D.
Prof. Geology and Botany
Raritan Valley Community College
Somerville, NJ 08876


From: dee777@aol.com [mailto:dee777@aol.com]

Sent: Tuesday, 6 January 2004 2:07 PM

Subject: Re: [1] Yellowstone

Hi: I had some firsthand information from an ET about the possibility of the devastation. Fortunately, there were many other earthquakes that relieved some of the pressure. I have myself listed on google news to send me anything on that area every day, so I should get any news quickly if anything happens there.

Dee


Subj: RE: [1] Yellowstone

Date: 1/6/2004 9:51:58 AM Pacific Standard Time

From: susoni@xxx

Blue and Dee..

I have great respect for Dee's work.. Also yours Blue.. But my personal observations and feelings on the subject are more along the lines of what Blue's friend said. Dee could very well be right though. I'm watching both sides at this point. Our Place is about 40 mins North of Yellowstone.

I have first hand knowledge from people who have visited the park this summer. There are no dead animals laying all around as some reports suggust and the sulfer smell is always there. It's not any more or any less then usual .. Snow is still on the ground now too. I did read up on the eruption data and came across this inforamtion (see below). My own personal 'feelings' (and that of an etherical friend) are that it is going to have an eruption... but it is what is called a hydrothermic one. I also 'feel' as if the damage will flow westward and some south. I remember discusing this with Luigi some months ago when the reports started... I was actualy thrilled to find this report below. Lynda

Date: Sun, 4 Dec 2003 11:27:37 -0800 (PST)
From: "Lynda B" <susoni@xxx

http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/faqs2.html

How often do volcanic eruptions occur at Yellowstone?

Three extremely large explosive eruptions have occurred at Yellowstone in the past 2.1 million years with a recurrence interval of about 600,000 to 800,000 years. More frequent eruptions of basalt and rhyolite lava flows have occurred before and after the large caldera-forming events. For example, scientists have identified about 30 different rhyolite lava flows that erupted after the most recent caldera eruptions, about 640,000 years ago, from vents inside the caldera. The most recent was about 70,000 years ago. Many of these eruptions were separated in time by several tens of thousandsof years. Because the evidence of earlier eruptions may have been either buried or destroyed, we do not really know how often the volcano has actually erupted.

When was the last time there was volcanism at Yellowstone?

The most recent volcanic activity consisted of rhyolitic lava flows that erupted approximately 70,000 years ago. The largest of these flows formed the Pitchstone Plateau in southwestern Yellowstone National Park.

How much volcanic activity has there been at Yellowstone since the most recent giant eruption?

Since the most recent giant caldera-forming eruption, 640,000 years ago, at least 30 smaller but still destructive volcanic eruptions have occurred at Yellowstone. Some of the eruptions were approximately the size of the devastating 1991 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines, and several were much larger.

What type of eruption will occur if Yellowstone erupts again?

Yellowstone's volcanic and hydrothermal history suggests the potential for various kinds of eruptions in the future. The likelihood of a certain type of eruption occurring in the future can be judged by how often eruptions have occurred in the past.

The most likely type of eruption would not be volcanic but, rather, hydrothermal. This type of small, but still explosive eruption can occur from shallow reservoirs of steam or hot water rather than molten rock. These reservoirs are the sources of Yellowstone's famous geysers, hot springs, and fumaroles. Such explosions could blast out shallow craters more than a kilometer wide; as has occurred in the northern Yellowstone Lake Basin, including Mary Bay and nearby Turbid Lake and Indian Pond, and in western Yellowstone National Park north of Old Faithful. Each of these craters was produced by steam blasts within the past few thousand years.


YELLOWSTONE AREA HAS HAD SERIOUS QUAKES BEFORE:

1959 Earthquake News

QUAKE HITS HEBGEN

DEATH TOLL MOUNTS IN FACE OF MAJOR MONTANA DISASTER

HELENA, Mont. (AP)

Earthquakes hit the Northwest from British Columbia to Wyoming Monday night and early today, leaving a mounting death toll over southwestern Montana. The shocks were so severe a big Montana dam was damaged and a mountainside toppled into a river.

Sixteen deaths were reported.

Six deaths were reported to Sheriff Lloyd Brook at Virginia City, by a helicopter pilot who flew over the scene. The Idaho State Police in a radio broadcast said there had been eight deaths. A radio station executive who got into the area said he learned that two people had been buried by a landslide in the Madison River canyon below the big slide area. He theorized more might be dead.

There was no way, Civil Defense headquarters here said, of determining whether there is duplication in the reports.

The report of the people covered by the slide came from Richard D. Smiley, president and general manager of radio station KXXL at Bozeman, Mont., who got into the stricken area as far as the big slide. He said he was told that three boys escaped the same slide.

The helicopter pilot told Sheriff Brooks he had counted the six bodies during a flight over the scene.

The quakes shook Yellowstone National Park, filled with summer tourists.

Dean Stone, managing editor of the Maryville-Alcoa (Tenn.) Times, was among the tourists routed by the quake. He said the hotel and Mammoth Hot Springs rumbled for several minutes and that at least one auto was trapped inside the park by a rockslide.

Dr. W. A. Melther, manning a hospital in Ashton, east Idaho town, said he treated half a dozen minor injury cases from West Yellowstone. Three or four of the people, he said, were pretty badly shaken up.

He said there is a general exodus from the western gateway of the park, 57 miles northeast of Ashton.

The assistant chief ranger at Yellowstone Park, Frank Sylvester, said most west side roads were closed by slides but tourist travel was carried on through other entrances. A water main broke in the eastern wing of Old Faithful Inn.

He reported there appeared to be no damage to Old Faithful and other famed geysers and scenic features in the park.

He said the last heavy tremor in the park was in 1924 and that the geysers also escaped damage.

He reported roads closed by rockslides included south from Mammoth, Norris Junction to Madison Junction and from Old Faithful to Madison Junction.

Most of the residents of Ennis, Mont., about 50 miles downstream from Hebgen Dam, were evacuated in the predawn hours but about a hundred remained. The evacuation was ordered when it appeared the third of a million acre feet in Hebgen Lake might pour down on them. The evacuation was called off when the mountainside blocked the river so tightly it shut off all the stream's flow.

Many of those who left Ennis went to nearby Virginia City, famed in Western lore as the birthplace of the Vigilantes.

The first quake struck at 11:30 p.m. (MST).

All tourists staying in the town were awakened at 2 a.m. and were advised to get out. The same advice was given to tourists at Three Forks, several miles downstream.

Civil Defense Director Potter appealed for helicopters to aid in the rescue and asked the U.S. Forest Service to send in a smokejumper equipped with a radio to help organize the people. A smokejumper is a parachutist who jumps into forest fire areas to fight blazes.

The search and rescue coordinating center of the 4th Air Force at Hamilton Field, near San Francisco, said it is mustering helicopters to try to rescue the marooned persons. The 'copters are being rounded up from Hill Air Force Base, Utah; Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, and the Army at Ft. Lewis, Wash.

Varied reports came out of the condition of Hebgen Dam. The Montana Power Co., which owns it, said it was damaged at the top and that it "could go." At various times through early morning hours there were reports it had "gone out."

The fatalities were reported by a helicopter pilot, who said he counted the bodies as he circled the area.

Two of the dead were in the Cliff Lake area, killed when a quake sent a cliff hurtling down on them. Another was believed to be in the Wade Lake area. The Sheriff at Virginia City, Mont., did not know where the other bodies were seen. He had no identification of the victims.

Bulletin

The first four injured persons brought to the hospital here at 2 p.m. today were identified as Margaret Holmes, 72, of Billings; Ray N. Painter, 46, and his wife, 42, of Ogden, Utah, and Clarence D. Scott, 59, Fresno, Calif.

The Billings woman and Mr. and Mrs. Painter were listed as surgical patients.

The condition of the patients was not immediately available.

Four other injured persons were expected momentarily. [Bozeman Daily Chronicle; August 18, 1959]


monitor the hot spots now

http://goes.higp.hawaii.edu/


Here is a link to a BBC Horizon documentary on supervolcanoes. Talks alot about yellowstone.

The transcript is a long read but very informative.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/1999/supervolcanoes.shtml


Check links out.

http://armageddononline.tripod.com/volcano.htm

http://www.infoplease.com/spot/disaster2.html

http://www.utoronto.ca/env/lib_hold/db1/files/9630.htm


the direction of the winds and upper jet stream would also be a factor on where the ash goes

just check here:

http://www.wunderground.com/US/Region/US/JetStream.html

jet stream map, current

http://www.wunderground.com/US/Region/US/WindSpeed.html

surface wind direction, current


GREATDREAMS - EARTHQUAKE NEWS
... During the first two months of 2001, there were seven earthquakes with magnitudes of 7.0 or higher with over 35,000 deaths ...
Enceladus was feared and revered as the god of seismic tremors and volcanos. ...

http://www.greatdreams.com/gdquakes.htm

POLAR AXIS SPIN - The Current Location Of The Spin Axis
... http://www.greatdreams.com/motion.htm POLAR MOTION - A PROPHECY -
This will make the eruption of volcanos in the vertical upthrusts of up to seven ft. ...

http://www.greatdreams.com/spinaxis.htm

Sylvester the Cat and Speedy Gonzales - May 5, 2003
... disasters, weather changes, storms, earthquakes, volcanos, meteors hitting ... event during May, 2003

http://www.greatdreams.com/sylvester.htm

DREAMS, PROPHECY AND NEWS OF VOLCANOES

... There had been 14 scheduled to be linked to blow up all at once, but the Gods/spirits
managed to get it down to seven so mankind didn't have to suffer quite

http://www.greatdreams.com/volcano2.htm

NEW PROPHECIES FROM JUST REGULAR PEOPLE

... saw the number seven.. ... Volcanos had erupted spewing ash and rock into the atmosphere,
but most had been contained by the swirling waters

http://www.greatdreams.com/regular_prophecy.htm

DEE'S DREAMS AND VISIONS - JANUARY, 1999

Seven volcanos currently active. Mudslides and avalanches
killing more people in the last year than ever before....

http://www.greatdreams.com/jan99.htm

COLIMA, MEXICO - EARTHQUAKE - 1-22-2003

... A man in Comala, seven miles north of the capital, Colima, said the quake
was strong but lasted less than a minute. ....

http://www.greatdreams.com/colima.htm

VOLCANO DISASTERS


Yellowstone National Park
Reservations and park information.

http://www.yellowstone.cc

Yellowstone Travel Packet
Park. Includes 2lbs of brochures.

http://www.areatravelpackets.com

Visit Yellowstone
Plan a Yellowstone Park vacation

http://www.yellowstoneparktraveler.com

Yellowstone National Park (National Park Service)
Yellowstone National Park Located in Yellowstone National Park, ID,MT,WY. ...

http://www.nps.gov/yell/

Yellowstone National Park - The Official Home Page
... | Current Issues. Yellowstone Profile Pages | NPS ParkNet Home

http://www.nps.gov/yell/home.htm

12-26-04 - Minor quake hits east of Yosemite National Park
San Jose Mercury News , CA - 2 hours ago
... A minor earthquake rattled a ... The magnitude-3.9 quake hit at 7:56 pm and was centered about 25 miles east of the small park border
town of Lee Vining,

Yellowstone Lake shoreline shifting in unusual way

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, Wyo. (AP) -- The shoreline of Yellowstone Lake has been shifting over the past 50 years, receding and advancing in ways that officials say are unusual and not clearly understood.

"We're seeing substantial change along the shoreline and it's not uniform around the basin," said Barbara Pickup, a graduate student at the University of Arkansas, who has tracked the shoreline's movement from photos and other data from the past 50 years.

Normally a lake shoreline would advance or recede much like water in a bathtub -- evenly around the whole tub. A study by researchers at the University of Arkansas found some portions eroding, some portions advancing and then a reversal.

"All we know is that there are some intriguing things going on," said Stephen Boss, a geosciences professor at the university.

Changes in the shoreline could offer insight into geological activity at Yellowstone, particularly in the caldera, the bowl-shaped collapsed volcano in which the lake sits. Over time, researchers may be able to predict future erosion on the shore, which would help in planning road maintenance or archaeological digs on the beaches.

Boss, trained as a coastal geologist, first started wondering about the Yellowstone Lake shoreline during a family vacation to the park in 2003.

"We came around this corner and noticed this beautiful developed sand bar on the north end of West Thumb," Boss said. He spotted another at Mary Bay.

Sandbars tend to be more common in coastal areas, not high altitude lakes that have formed in a collapsed volcano, he said.

Boss returned to Arkansas to search for any scientific literature about the lake shore, but found very little.

When Pickup arrived at the university that fall, Boss told her about the shoreline and all of the influences that could be at work, including shifting sediments, the slow inhaling and exhaling of the caldera and other unseen forces.

"It looked like a pretty rich thing to go and investigate," Boss said.

To look at the erosion process over time, Boss and Pickup ordered aerial photographs of Yellowstone Lake from the U.S. Geological Survey dating back to 1954.

Pickup then had the photos converted to digital images that could be measured and compared.

Overall, Pickup and Boss found the West Thumb shore has receded, but they also found episodes when the lake shore advanced in certain spots.

"I was surprised to see how much change there was," Boss said.

It's possible that the movement of the shoreline reflects changes in the caldera, portions of which rose three feet between 1923 and 1984 and dropped about eight inches between 1985 and 1995. Other research has shown that the floor of the caldera rose again in 1995 and 1996 and fell again in 1997.

Now that scientists have a better idea about how the shoreline has changed, they'll try to isolate which factors exert the most influence.

Next summer, researchers will focus on the south shore of West Thumb and, later, use three-dimensional images that will closely track the shoreline's movement over the coming years.

"If a pebble falls off, we should theoretically be able to detect it," Boss said.

Pickup presented her most recent findings in Denver last month at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America.

 

Scientists Probing Yellowstone's Murk Mystery

Middle Creek Is Turning Color Of Glacier Water

POSTED: 12:50 pm MDT October 5, 2004
Testing with dye is planned to find out why a creek near the East Entrance has turned greenish.

Middle Creek, which flows into the North Fork of the Shoshone River, has been the color of glacier water since August.

"There's a small, unnamed pond near Sylvan Pass that serves as the headwaters ... and sometime recently it turned sort of a greenish-gray tint," Yellowstone spokesman Al Nash said.

"It looks just like a pond at the foot of a glacier."

Glaciers, such as those in Montana's Glacier National Park, tint ponds and streams by filling them with the fine dust they grind off rocks.

The Sylvan Pass pond is not near a glacier. But Nash said glacial ice or ice remnants might have resurfaced after being buried.

Also, rock-crushing has been taking place in the area for road work and a large mudslide occurred on the pass in July.

Nash emphasized that no cause has been singled out.

The dye test, he said, will likely have to wait until more favorable weather next spring. It would enable scientists to get a better idea of how water that might be causing the strange color flows underground.

The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Federal Highway Administration, National Park Service and U.S. Geological Survey have been trying to solve the mystery.

Park Geologist Hank Heasler expects to have a report ready by December but doubts all the questions will be solved by then.

"We've aggressively jumped on top of it because we're here," he said. "Now we're starting to bring in outside experts like the United States Geology Survey to help with a timely understanding of the conditions."


Posted on Sun, Oct. 03, 2004
Yellowstone area open

Associated Press

A portion of the Norris Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming closed for more than a year because of safety concerns has reopened to visitors.

A new boardwalk was built through the Back Basin area. It replaces an older trail section that was closed July 22, 2003, because of high ground temperatures and increased thermal activity.

While most of the area reopened to visitors last Oct. 9, part of the loop trail remained closed until boardwalk was built along a new route through the thermal area.

The new boardwalk allows visitors to see Porkchop Geyser and Green Dragon Spring. The new route also provides access to new thermal features that have developed within the past year and affords visitors new vistas of the Norris Geyser Basin area.

Norris Geyser Basin is the hottest and most seismically active geyser basin in Yellowstone.

The thermal activity at Norris does not pose a threat to visitors and employees as long as people stay on open trails and boardwalks, park officials said.

Minor earthquake rattles Douglas
8-29-04

DOUGLAS, Wyo. - A minor earthquake rattled east-central Wyoming on Sunday afternoon but apparently caused no damage.

The quake brought some Douglas residents out of their homes to compare notes with their neighbors.

The temblor struck at 12:49 p.m. and measured 3.8 magnitude, the National Earthquake Information Center in Denver said.

The center classified the quake as minor and fairly shallow. The epicenter was 10 miles north-northwest of Douglas.

In 1984, a quake measuring 5.5 magnitude shook the area, causing slight damage.

While most of Wyoming's earthquake activity occurs in the state's northwestern corner and far west boundary, the Wyoming State Geological Survey has noted a history of earthquakes in central Wyoming, particularly southwest of Douglas near Laramie Peak.

Copyright © 2004 Associated Press. All rights reserved

 


Yellowstone Mudslides and Floods Trap 16, Close Entrance


Yellowstone National Park


Associated Press

Sixteen people had to be rescued Sunday after mudslides bogged down three vehicles and stranded a fourth near the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park.

The east entrance is closed and it doesn't look like it will be reopened any time soon. The two largest slides were ten feet deep and 90 yards long.

Yellowstone spokesman Al Nash says thousands of cubic feet of debris will have to be removed. Besides that, the slides undercut part of the roadway and washed away guardrails.

The mud began flowing around eight last night, sloshing up to the hoods of some cars. Some people had to be helped out through the windows of their car windows.

No one was hurt, and the 16 travelers were evacuated to Pahaska Tepee, a resort just outside the east entrance. Others who had been planning to leave the park through the east entrance stayed the night at park facilities at Fishing Bridge.

No one has been reported missing, but Park County sheriff's officials plan to search the area with metal detectors and a dog as a precaution.

Two wildfires burned over 23-thousand acres in the area last summer, closing the east entrance for about two weeks. The mudslides occurred just outside the burn area.


By Kevin Krajick
July 2004
Smithsonian Magazine

http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues04/jul04/phenomena.html


Yellowstone Grumbles

Pent-up water and steam threaten to burst through the park's surface (And we're not talking Old Faithful here)

Yellowstone National Park is a land of many perils. Occasionally, one of the three million yearly visitors strolls up to a 2,000-pound bison and is gored. Others eat poisonous plants, snowmobile on avalanche-prone
slopes, or plunge off a cliff on that last step backward to frame the perfect photograph. And at Yellowstone's 10,000 volcanically driven hot springs, geysers, bubbling mud pots and fumaroles—earth's largest concentration of hydrothermal features—about two dozen people have been boiled alive after falling or jumping in.

"People do a lot of crazy things," says Lisa Morgan, a volcanologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) who conducts research in the park for a few weeks every summer. She is trying to protect the sandal-clad
innocents not from these mishaps, however, but from the ultimate "thermal accident": hydrothermal explosions. They can happen when magma-heated water and steam build up in underground pockets. This pressure causes
parts of the landscape to rise and fall like merry-go-round horses. Usually they settle back down again harmlessly. But now and then, things blow up.

One of Morgan's best guesses for the next big blowout—maybe the biggest in 3,000 years—is a 2,100-foot-wide, 100-foot-high swelling on the bed of Yellowstone Lake. No one has observed any of the park's ground movements long enough to say which ones signal danger, but she says the lake bed could conceivably burst open. If so, lakeside picnickers could see a tsunami or truck-size rocks heading their way. "I wouldn't want to be here," says Morgan. Then she thinks of the spectacle. "Well, maybe in an airplane."

The park sits on a still-active 30- by 45-mile caldera, a depression created when a volcano erupted 640,000 years ago. Chances of a lava eruption in the next 10,000 years appear remote, but magma simmering four to
five miles beneath the caldera's trapped groundwater drives the park's ydrothermal convulsions. Geysers like Old Faithful release pressure, but it can build to the breaking point when heated fluids get sealed in by shifts in rock structures, clogged vents or overlying sediment and mineral deposits.

In and around Yellowstone Lake—which lies near the caldera's center—Morgan and colleagues have identified several areas heavily pocked by past hydrothermal explosions. The pits, which appear to untrained eyes as
ponds or depressions in the ground, are a few yards to hundreds of yards wide. Along the lake, in eroded beach cliffs and creek banks, Morgan has found layers of sand and sharp-angled rock up to three feet thick;
the debris was hurled as far as three and a half miles by past explosions in the lake bed. Arrowheads jumbled in lakeshore deposits suggest unlucky prehistoric Native Americans were around for some of the explosions.

Major ones occurred from 3,000 to 14,000 years ago, according to radiocarbon dating of wood fragments mingled with the deposited rock and soil debris. Since people started keeping track, in 1872, there have been at
least 20 minor blowouts at sites around the park, including several at favorite tourist spots such as Biscuit Basin and Norris Geyser Basin. The last notable one was in 1989, when the throat of Norris Basin's Pork Chop Geyser apparently clogged with minerals. When it burst, boulders rained down near tourists more than 200 feet away. (They were unscathed.)

Only recently did scientists realize the entire park was heaving up and down. In the 1970s, geophysics professor Robert Smith of the University of Utah compared new scientific surveys of ground elevations with
surveys made for road building in the 1920s. He found the caldera's center had risen nearly three feet. It kept rising until 1985, when a series of earthquakes rocked the park. Scientists speculate that the tremors
coincided with the sideways escape of pent-up gases. Afterward, the caldera began deflating by three-quarters of an inch a year. In 1995, some parts of it reversed direction and started reinflating, until stopping in
2002. In the meantime, a previously undetected 25-mile-wide swelling began outside the caldera, near Norris Basin, surrounded by smaller swellings one to three miles in diameter.

Though no one is sure what all of this heaving means, it's given researchers a sense of urgency about understanding the park's contortions. "Protecting visitors is our No. 1 concern," says park geologist Hank
Heasler, who is working with other scientists to come up with a threat-assessment plan.

New problem spots are popping up all the time as well. In March 2003, fourteen new steam vents opened along a 230-foot line north of Norris Basin, releasing plumes of dense water vapor and powdered glass shards in
a tremendous roar. Then, last July, geysers began erupting at odd times. The park had to close off much of Norris when ground temperatures shot up in places from 80 degrees Fahrenheit to 200, and the earth near a
boardwalk became more acidic and began to dissolve. The basin has since calmed down, and rangers have reopened most of it, but scientists are monitoring trailside areas with thermometers stuck in the ground, seismographs peppering strategic hills, and radar images taken from satellites. "Yellowstone is like a medical patient, but we haven't studied it long enough to know its normal pulse or respiration rate," says Heasler, standing half a mile from the new steam vents.

Morgan is still tracking the dome on the Yellowstone Lake floor called the "inflated plain." She first spotted it in 1999, while she and colleagues were mapping the lake bottom. The rise, she says, is apparently the result of steam or carbon dioxide building up under the lake bed, sealed in by sediments and overlying water pressure. The swelling seems to have grown in the 1990s and is suspiciously close in size to major blowout craters nearby. In fact, it lies along a nearby fissure, a crack that forms the bed of curiously straight Weasel Creek and continues through the lake bed itself. Morgan says the fissure may have been formed by the caldera's rise and fall, like the crack atop a loaf of bread rising in the oven.

At the lakeshore opposite the inflated plain one summer day, Morgan and USGS geochemist Pat Shanks investigate some small, inactive craters. They insert a temperature probe into the soil; six inches down, it registers 152 degrees F. Something is still fuming there. Suddenly, some tourists armed with cameras and collapsible walking sticks crest a ridge and charge down, and their guide collars Morgan for an impromptu lecture on the craters. She cheerfully obliges, telling the visitors that the craters are old features—probably not dangerous right now. She barely mentions the inflated plain. "I don't want to scare them too much," she says. "These people are on vacation."

By Kevin Krajick
 
http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues04/jul04/phenomena.html
Tuesday, July 20, 2004
Montana
Rumbles of danger in Yellowstone Park

By Smithsonian Magazine - For AP Weekly Features - 07/20/04

Yellowstone National Park is a land of many perils.

Occasionally, one of the three million yearly visitors strolls up to a 2,000-pound bison and is gored. Others eat poisonous plants, snowmobile on avalanche-prone slopes, or plunge off a cliff on that last step backward to frame the perfect photograph. And at Yellowstone's 10,000 volcanically driven hot springs, geysers, bubbling mud pots and fumaroles - Earth's largest concentration of hydrothermal features - about two dozen people have been boiled alive after falling or jumping in.

''People do a lot of crazy things,'' says Lisa Morgan, a volcanologist with the U.S. Geological Survey who conducts research in the park for a few weeks every summer.

She is trying to protect the sandal-clad innocents not from these mishaps, however, but from the ultimate ''thermal accident'': hydrothermal explosions. They can happen when magma-heated water and steam build up in underground pockets. This pressure causes parts of the landscape to rise and fall like merry-go-round horses. Usually they settle back down again harmlessly. But now and then, things blow up.

Morgan tells Smithsonian magazine's Kevin Krajick in the July issue that one of her best guesses for the next big blowout - maybe the biggest in 3,000 years - is a 2,100-foot-wide, 100-foot-high swelling on the bed of Yellowstone Lake.

No one has observed any of the park's ground movements long enough to say which ones signal danger, but she says the lake bed could conceivably burst open. If so, lakeside picnickers could see a tsunami or truck-size rocks heading their way. ''I wouldn't want to be here,'' says Morgan. Then she thinks of the spectacle. ''Well, maybe in an airplane.''

The park sits on a still-active 30-by-45-mile caldera, a depression created when a volcano erupted 640,000 years ago. Chances of a lava eruption in the next 10,000 years appear remote, but magma simmering four to five miles beneath the caldera's trapped groundwater drives the park's hydrothermal convulsions.

Geysers like Old Faithful release pressure, but it can build to the breaking point when heated fluids get sealed in by shifts in rock structures, clogged vents or overlying sediment and mineral deposits.

In and around Yellowstone Lake, which lies near the caldera's center, Morgan and colleagues have identified several areas heavily pocked by past hydrothermal explosions. Major ones occurred from 3,000 to 14,000 years ago, according to radiocarbon dating of wood fragments mingled with the deposited rock and soil debris.

Since people started keeping track in 1872, there have been at least 20 minor blowouts at sites around the park, including several at favorite tourist spots such as Biscuit Basin and Norris Geyser Basin. The last notable one was in 1989, when the throat of Norris Basin's Pork Chop Geyser apparently clogged with minerals. When it burst, boulders rained down near tourists more than 200 feet away. (They were unscathed.)

At the lakeshore opposite the inflated plain one summer day, Morgan and USGS geochemist Pat Shanks investigated some small, inactive craters. They inserted a temperature probe into the soil; 6 inches down, it registered 152 degrees. Something is still fuming there.

Suddenly, some tourists armed with cameras and collapsible walking sticks crested a ridge and charged down, and their guide collared Morgan for an impromptu lecture on the craters. She cheerfully obliged, telling the visitors that the craters are old features - probably not dangerous right now. She barely mentioned the inflated plain. ''I don't want to scare them too much,'' she said. ''These people are on vacation.''

Yellowstone Net -- Welcome to Yellowstone National Park!
Online Reservations and extensive information for first-time visitors
and long-time lovers of Yellowstone National Park. ...

http://www.yellowstone.net/

Yellowstone Net Newspaper

http://www.yellowstone.net

News from National Park Service and road reports.

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Yellowstone National Park -- The Total Yellowstone Page
"A thousand Yellowstone wonders are calling, 'Look up and down and round
about you!'" John Muir - 1898 ... Yellowstone Glacier Adventures. ...

http://www.yellowstone-natl-park.com/

SUPERVOLCANOES - INTERVIEW ON THE BBC

Welcome to the Yellowstone Association
The non-profit Yellowstone Association offers books, maps, videos and other materials
about Yellowstone National Park, classes through its Yellowstone Park ...

http://yellowstoneassociation.org/

Yellowstone Art Museum - Home Page
Formerly known as Yellowstone Art Center, the museum's purpose is to exhibit, document,
collect and preserve contemporary and historic western art

http://yellowstone.artmuseum.org/

Yellowstone National Park--Pictures and Information For Kids
Kids logo, Parents:

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/yellowstone/

Yellowstone Geographic
Yellowstone Geographic provides information about the Greater Yellowstone
Region including Yellowstone National Park, and Teton National Park. ...

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